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Theses

Nouveau regard sur quelques caractéristiques physiques du Soleil

Abstract : This thesis aims to highlight a new vision on the main physical characteristics of the Sun. Before the development of astrophysics, the study of a star mainly concerned its geometrical properties. The accurate measurement of the solar diameter was carried out since the antiquity and represents one of the oldest problems in astrophysics. Part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the solar diameter and its variation over time. One of the objectives is to determine whether the diameter of the Sun varies with the solar activity. Data acquired by the PICARD mission instruments were used to try to answer this question. This thesis also deals with the absolute determination of the solar oblateness and its variation during the cycle 24. This study was based on the use of the measurements acquired by two space-based telescopes (PICARD/SODISM and SDO/HMI). The solar oblateness measurements are important and allow to validate the physical hypotheses implemented in the solar models. This thesis also consists to determine the absolute value of the total solar irradiance and its variability over time. The total solar irradiance is an essential parameter for all climate models. Its accurate determination is therefore fundamental. The absolute value of the total solar irradiance was obtained from the measurements carried out by the PICARD/SOVAP radiometer during the solar cycle 24. The last chapter of this thesis is devoted to the study of the solar irradiance in the ultraviolet and its variation during the solar cycle 24. This study is based on the measurements carried out by the SOLAR/SOSLPEC spectrometer on board the International Space Station. The variations of the ultraviolet radiation during a solar cycle (10% at 200 nm for a strong solar cycle) are much higher than the variations of the total solar irradiance (0.1%). The accurate determination of the ultraviolet solar irradiance is therefore very important. It is also increasingly evident that the variations of the solar irradiance in the ultraviolet play a significant role in the chemistry of the Earth"s atmosphere and climate. The results obtained during this thesis show the interests to perform accurate measurements in the ultraviolet during a solar cycle of about 11 years. Through this work, we bring a new perspective with respect to the absolute value of the main solar parameters.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 26, 2017 - 12:26:06 PM
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Mustapha Meftah. Nouveau regard sur quelques caractéristiques physiques du Soleil. Astrophysique stellaire et solaire [astro-ph.SR]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV021⟩. ⟨tel-01593476⟩

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