Combining 2D facial texture and 3D face morphology for estimating people's soft biometrics and recognizing facial expressions

Huaxiong Ding 1
1 imagine - Extraction de Caractéristiques et Identification
LIRIS - Laboratoire d'InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes d'information
Abstract : Since soft biometrics traits can provide sufficient evidence to precisely determine the identity of human, there has been increasing attention for face based soft biometrics identification in recent years. Among those face based soft biometrics, gender and ethnicity are both key demographic attributes of human beings and they play a very fundamental and important role in automatic machine based face analysis. Meanwhile, facial expression recognition is another challenge problem in face analysis because of the diversity and hybridity of human expressions among different subjects in different cultures, genders and contexts. This Ph.D thesis work is dedicated to combine 2D facial Texture and 3D face morphology for estimating people’s soft biometrics: gender, ethnicity, etc., and recognizing facial expression. For the gender and ethnicity recognition, we present an effective and efficient approach on this issue by combining both boosted local texture and shape features extracted from 3D face models, in contrast to the existing ones that only depend on either 2D texture or 3D shape of faces. In order to comprehensively represent the difference between different genders or ethnics groups, we propose a novel local descriptor, namely local circular patterns (LCP). LCP improves the widely utilized local binary patterns (LBP) and its variants by replacing the binary quantization with a clustering based one, resulting in higher discriminative power as well as better robustness to noise. Meanwhile, the following Adaboost based feature selection finds the most discriminative gender- and ethnic-related features and assigns them with different weights to highlight their importance in classification, which not only further raises the performance but reduces the time and memory cost as well. Experimental results achieved on the FRGC v2.0 and BU-3DFE data sets clearly demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. For facial expression recognition, we present a fully automatic multi-modal 2D + 3D feature-based facial expression recognition approach and demonstrate its performance on the BU–3DFE database. Our approach combines multi-order gradientbased local texture and shape descriptors in order to achieve efficiency a nd robustness. First, a large set of fiducial facial landmarks of 2D face images along with their 3D face scans are localized using a novel algorithm namely incremental Parallel Cascade of Linear Regression (iPar–CLR). Then, a novel Histogram of Second Order Gradients (HSOG) based local image descriptor in conjunction with the widely used first-order gradient based SIFT descriptor are employed to describe the local texture around each 2D landmark. Similarly, the local geometry around each 3D landmark is described by two novel local shape descriptors constructed using the first-order and the second-order surface differential geometry quantities, i.e., Histogram of mesh Gradients (meshHOG) and Histogram of mesh Shape index (curvature quantization, meshHOS). Finally, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based recognition results of all 2D and 3D descriptors are fused at both featurelevel and score-level to further improve the accuracy. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that there exist impressive complementary characteristics between the 2D and 3D descriptors. We use the BU–3DFE benchmark to compare our approach to the state-of-the-art ones. Our multi-modal feature-based approach outperforms the others by achieving an average recognition accuracy of 86,32%. Moreover, a good generalization ability is shown on the Bosphorus database.
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Huaxiong Ding. Combining 2D facial texture and 3D face morphology for estimating people's soft biometrics and recognizing facial expressions. Other. Université de Lyon, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSEC061⟩. ⟨tel-01593173⟩

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