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Analyse et modélisation des transferts et de la rétention de pesticides dans les fossés agricoles infiltrants en lien avec les stratégies d’entretien

Abstract : By linking cropped fields to downstream groundwater and surface water bodies, farm ditches constitute preferential pathways for pesticide dispersal at the catchment scale. But thanks to their pesticide retention capacity ditches are known for buffering pesticide non-point source pollutions. Ditch management operations were identified as mean to improve ditch buffering capacities. However, little is known about how pesticide retention capacities of ditches vary as a function of ditch properties and management. Accordingly, the objective of this work is to quantify how pesticide retention capacity in a range of infiltrating ditches evolves subsequently to the main management operations.The methodology relies on i) an experimental characterization of the main management operation effects on the evolution of ditch properties, ii) an analysis of how these properties influence two key processes regulating herbicides retention: sorption and infiltration, iii) a numerical exploration, based on the previously mentioned experimentations, of each operation effects on the yearly evolution of pesticide retention capacity of ditches. The experimental design combined in situ observations at the reach scale on 3 catchments as well as laboratory experimentations and concerned the behavior of 3 herbicides, glyphosate, diuron and isoproturon.The results of this works highlighted the fact that burning, mowing and chemical weeding operations increase pesticide retention capacities of the ditches as compared to an unmanaged ditch while dredging deteriorates it. They also allowed us to improve our knowledge on ditch materials properties and variability, to propose a new indicator of ditch retention capacity and to evaluate different modelling approaches of pesticide retention by infiltrating ditches.
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Jeanne Dollinger. Analyse et modélisation des transferts et de la rétention de pesticides dans les fossés agricoles infiltrants en lien avec les stratégies d’entretien. Sciences agricoles. Montpellier SupAgro, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016NSAM0014⟩. ⟨tel-01591572⟩

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