Contrôle des voies de signalisation Wnt par R-spondin1 au cours de la régénération du muscle squelettique adulte

Abstract : Adult mammalian skeletal muscles have the remarkable ability to repair after injury. Muscle regeneration depends on various cellular and molecular responses, such as activation of Wnt signaling pathways in muscle stem cells called satellite cells. R-spondin (Rspo) proteins are able to potentiate Wnt signaling pathways in vivo in many stem cells and play important role for regeneration of several tissues. The role of R-spondin in injury-induced myogenesis has not been studied. Given that R-spondin1 gene expression is up-regulated by Pax7, the satellite cell-specific transcription factor, we explored the hypothesis that R-spondin1 plays a role during skeletal muscle regeneration. We firstly isolated primary myoblasts from Rspo1 constitutive knock-out mice and observed that a depletion of Rspo1 did not alter cell cycle of these cells. However, a lack of R-spondin1 on cells resulted in global alteration of differentiation kinetics. We found that R-spondin1 inhibits muscle cell fusion, as Rspo1 knock-out myotubes contain an higher number of myonuclei. Then, we injured the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of Rspo1-null mice and littermates controls by Cardiotoxin injection and analyzed muscle regeneration at different time points following injury. Our data show that R-spondin1 removal results in a delay of stem cell differenciation. In contrast, a R-spondin1 deficiency leads to better cell capacity to fuse to dommaged myofibers, giving rise to myofiber hypertrophy. As with other tissue-specific stem cells, such as hair follicle or intestinal crypt stem cells, R-spondin1 potentiates canonical Wnt signaling target genes expression in muscle stem cells. We proved that R-spondin1 potentiates canonical Wnt signaling target genes expression and negatively regulates non-canonical signaling in muscle stem cells. Our results demonstrate that R-spondin1 is crucial for adult muscle regeneration through a tighly cross-talk regulation between Wnt signalings.
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Floriane Lacour. Contrôle des voies de signalisation Wnt par R-spondin1 au cours de la régénération du muscle squelettique adulte. Biologie cellulaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB035⟩. ⟨tel-01589664⟩

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