Evaluation des caractéristiques chimiques et agronomiques de cinq composts de déchets et étude de leurs effets sur les propriétés chimiques du sol, la physiologie et le rendement du maïs ( Zea mays L. Var. Ikenne) et de la tomate ( Lycop ersicum esculentum L. Var. Tropimech) sous deux régimes hydriques au Togo

Abstract : Soil nutrient depletion and water deficit as a result of seasons’ disruption are major factors adversely affecting crop yields in West Africa. To remedy this, the amendment of compost-based soil is often considered. In this study, Five composts were elaborated using household waste and agri-food waste, manure and phosphate: composts C1 (household waste + agri-food waste), C2 (C1 + manure), C3 (C1 + natural phosphate), C4 (C1 + manure + natural phosphate) and C5 (agri-food waste). These composts were first characterized and their effects on an acidic soil and on two crops (corn and tomato) were then investigated in greenhouse and field under two water regimes in the goal to identify the best's ones in improving resistance of the two crops to watering reducing, applied prior flowering. The results showed for C4 and C5 high contents of phosphorus, about 1.62% compared to 0.09% for the C1 compost. Composts C3 and C4 showed the highest levels of calcium, about 3.9% compared to 1.2% for the C1 compost while composts C4 and C1 were more hydrophobic than all other composts. Plants of corn grown under constant irrigation on soil amended with compost C4 and C5 in greenhouse showed high nitrogen and potassium contents, respectively 2.55% and 6.69% compared to 1.33% and 3.97 % of the control plants and those grown on synthetic fertilizers. Under reduced watering, we recorded higher potassium and calcium contents in plants grown on all of the five composts compared to control plants. In field, under reduced watering, composts C4 and C5 were those leading corn plants to maintain physiological parameters levels (low cell membrane permeability and high total chlorophyll) compared to well –watered plants. We also recorded for both composts the same grain yields in plants submitted to two water regimes, respectively 5.52t/ha and 6.72t/ha for C4 and C5 in well-watered plants and 5.65t/ha and 5.09t/ha for C4 and C5 in plants grown under low water regime. In tomato, an increased weight of fruit per plant was recorded in C3 compost plants under reduced-watering compared to those well-watered (95.93g compared to 44.29g) while in the same conditions, the compost C5 was the best for the number of fruits per plant (7.39 against 4.26). These data indicated that the three composts C3, C4 and C5 were the most efficient in this study and may be retained in adaptation programs of two crops to climate change for a sustainable development.
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Outéndé Toundou. Evaluation des caractéristiques chimiques et agronomiques de cinq composts de déchets et étude de leurs effets sur les propriétés chimiques du sol, la physiologie et le rendement du maïs ( Zea mays L. Var. Ikenne) et de la tomate ( Lycop ersicum esculentum L. Var. Tropimech) sous deux régimes hydriques au Togo. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0020⟩. ⟨tel-01589050⟩

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