Apport des nouvelles technologies du sommeil en réanimation médicale, dans l’exploration de la maladie d’Alzheimer, du syndrome d’apnée du sommeil et en conditions extrêmes

Abstract : Scientific research into sleep over the past thirty years has progressed so speedily that it is now possible to speak of “Sleep Medicine”. This specialty is placed incontestably at the frontier of Science and Medicine. The issues have been recently driven by the advances in the technology of recording biological parameter and analysis of the data, in parallel with a deeper understanding of the physiopathology and therapeutic advances in sleep disorders. The subject of this thesis lies at the crossover of two areas of professional expertise; sleep technology and bio-engineering, with notably the aim of validating new tools in research as well as in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders. We have tested a miniaturized polysomnographic new technology, the Actiwave, capable of detecting sleep and alert states in extreme conditions, notably in patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units and in aircraft pilots in long duration military flights. In intensive care units, we have explored the relation between sleep and noise in the immediate environment of the patients. In brief, Total Sleep Time was not disturbed whereas the sleep quality was altered. Wake episodes after sleep onset were mostly associated with noise over 77 dB, and the main disturbances were triggered by the alarms of breathing machines and those from vital parameters. In military flights of long duration, we have explored the presence of hypovigilance episodes. This allowed us to validate the Actiwave for polysomnography in extreme conditions. In a third study, we have analyzed the sleep patterns in a total of 202 patients with Alzheimer’s disease by using a new actimeter, the MotionWatch8. We have shown that the latter device has a good sensitivity and specificity or evaluating sleep-wake parameters in these patients. In particular, we find that the TST is in the normal range and is associated with the aptathy score. The SIJ score is associated with the apathy score and also with the cognitive impairments. Finally, the sleep fragmentation is associated with the disability status. In a last study, we explored the parameter of sleep apneas in patients with SAS using the NOWAPI. We validated this new device by demonstrating that it provides on-line reliable data about pressure and flow levels of various CPAP. In conclusion, this thesis considers possible future avenues of research into sleep technology and discusses the crucial importance of a scientific approach capable of leading the development of appropriate and lasting diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The next step will be the era of the 2.0 medicine for which I am developing the iSommeil application that will allow patients to be the actual actors of their disease and also to facilitate the diagnostic and the prevention of sleep disorders.
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Maxime El Baz. Apport des nouvelles technologies du sommeil en réanimation médicale, dans l’exploration de la maladie d’Alzheimer, du syndrome d’apnée du sommeil et en conditions extrêmes. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB003⟩. ⟨tel-01588553⟩

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