Caractérisation de la matière organique contenue dans les particules de la comète 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko par spectrométrie de masse avec l'instrument COSIMA de la sonde Rosetta

Abstract : After a ten-year journey, the European spacecraft Rosetta arrived at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) on August 6, 2014. In order to conduct intensive research for twenty six months, a total of 21 instruments were on board the Rosetta orbiter and the Philae lander. The time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometer, COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ions Mass Analyzer), was one of the orbiter instruments and was designed for in situ analysis of the chemical composition of cometary particles ejected from the comet 67P/C-G. This thesis aims to characterize the refractory organic component of the cometary dust, with the COSIMA instrument. As part of this work, I have developed and applied a methodology to analyze the cometary mass spectra, more specifically in the positive mode of the instrument. Using this methodology, five organic ions of cometary origin were detected and identified: C+ (m/z = 12.00), CH+ (m/z = 13.01), CH2+ (m/z = 14.02), CH3+ (m/z = 15.02) and C2H3+ (m/z = 27.02). The characterization of this organic component has been carried out with calibration mass spectra. The reference compounds used during this thesis include pure organic molecules and cometary organic matter analogs, such as natural samples (carbonaceous chondrites, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorite, insoluble organic matter extracted from carbonaceous chondrites) and one sample synthetized in the laboratory. The best analogue found so far to the refractory component of 67P/C-G particles is the insoluble organic matter extracted from carbonaceous chondrites. The cometary organic matter would be of high-molecular-weight and the carbon bounded in very large macromolecular compounds. Carbon is also one of the most abundant element in the dust particles with an elemental ratio of C⁄Si = 5,5 +1.4⁄-1.2. Comet 67P/C-G is among the most carbon-rich bodies of the solar system. Finally, a specific compound was sought, the polyoxymethylene. However, indicators developed and applied to the cometary data do not allow to conclude on the presence of polyoxymethylene in the particles analyzed by COSIMA.
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Anaïs Bardyn. Caractérisation de la matière organique contenue dans les particules de la comète 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko par spectrométrie de masse avec l'instrument COSIMA de la sonde Rosetta. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01584559⟩

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