Impact de la vapeur d’eau et des aérosols désertiques ‎sur le bilan radiatif et leurs contributions à ‎l’intensification de la dépression thermique en ‎Afrique de l’Ouest

Ridha Guebsi 1
1 TROPO - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : This work aims at enhancing our ‎understanding of the radiative impact of ‎aerosols and water vapor on the dynamics ‎of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) using a ‎combination of space-borne observations ‎‎(MODIS, OMI, CALIOP) and a radiative ‎transfer model (STREAMER). The mean ‎seasonal variability of aerosol optical depth ‎‎(AOD) and integrated water vapor content ‎‎(IWVC) over the Sahara, averaged over the ‎last 11 years, is found to be well correlated ‎with the seasonal evolution of the SHL. ‎After the onset of the SHL, the IWVC is ‎observed to increase steadily over the ‎Sahara while the AOD exhibits a localized ‎maximum during August associated with the ‎presence of deep convective systems ‎forming over the Hoggar Mountains.‎To estimate the seasonal radiative impact of ‎water vapor and desert aerosols, ‎STREAMER was used to calculate the net ‎monthly radiative budget from May to ‎September. Average monthly temperature ‎and humidity profiles obtained from the ‎European center for medium range weather ‎forecast (ECMWF) analyses and extinction ‎coefficient profiles derived from CALIOP ‎are used as input parameters for the model ‎calculation.‎Our work shows that the aerosols forcing in ‎the shortwave (SW) dominates the net ‎surface radiative budget, while water vapor ‎is the strongest player in terms of longwave ‎‎(LW) forcing. The SW and LW forcing ‎associated with aerosols and water vapor, ‎respectively, contribute to heating the lower ‎troposphere over the Sahara during the ‎summer (when the SHL is over the Sahara).‎In turn, this heating intensifies the cyclonic ‎circulation of the SHL thereby leading to ‎enhanced advection of water vapor ‎towards the Sahara.‎Hence, analyzing the decadal trends of ‎water vapor in the Tropics and sub-Tropics ‎is important to increase knowledge of the ‎dynamics of the SHL, a pivotal feature of ‎the West African Monsoon system.‎For the first time we show the impact of the ‎variability of ‎the ‎African ‎monsoon ‎associated with the ‎modulation of the latitude of intertropical ‎discontinuity (ITD), the Saharan Heat Low ‎‎(SHL), the low level jet (LLJ) and African ‎Easterly Jet (AEJ) ‎on the uprising of dust ‎during the periods of June 2006 and June ‎‎2011, corresponding to the AMMA and ‎FENNEC field campaigns, respectively.‎
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Ridha Guebsi. Impact de la vapeur d’eau et des aérosols désertiques ‎sur le bilan radiatif et leurs contributions à ‎l’intensification de la dépression thermique en ‎Afrique de l’Ouest. Climatologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV019⟩. ⟨tel-01582153⟩

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