Multi-proxy approach (Thorium-234, excess Barium) of export and remineralization fluxes of carbon and biogenic elements associated with the oceanic biological pump

Abstract : The main objective of this thesis is to improve our understanding of the different controls that affect the oceanic biological carbon pump. Particulate export and remineralization fluxes were investigated using the thorium-234 (234Th) and biogenic barium (Baxs) proxies.In the North Atlantic, the highest particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes were associated to biogenic (biogenic silica or calcium carbonate) and lithogenic minerals, ballasting the particles.Export efficiency was generally low (< 10%) and inversely related to primary production, highlighting a phase lag between production and export. The highest transfer efficiencies, i.e. the fraction of POC that reached 400m, were driven by sinking particles ballasted by calcite or lithogenic minerals.The regional variation of mesopelagic remineralization was attributed to changes in bloom intensity, phytoplankton cell size, community structure and physical forcing (downwelling). Carbon remineralization balanced, or even exceeded, POC export, highlighting the impact of mesopelagic remineralization on the biological pump with a near-zero, deep carbon sequestration for spring 2014.Export of trace metals appeared strongly influenced by lithogenic material advected from the margins. However, at open ocean stations not influenced by lithogenic matter, trace metal export rather depended on phytoplankton activity and biomass.A last part of this work focused on export of biogenic silica, particulate nitrogen and iron near the Kerguelen Island. This area is characterized by a natural iron-fertilization that increases export fluxes. Inside the fertilized area, flux variability is related to phytoplankton community composition.
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Nolwenn Lemaitre. Multi-proxy approach (Thorium-234, excess Barium) of export and remineralization fluxes of carbon and biogenic elements associated with the oceanic biological pump. Other. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0009⟩. ⟨tel-01578408⟩

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