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Aspects physiopathologiques du syndrome d'Ehlers-Danlos vasculaire

Abstract : Vascular Elhers-Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is an autosomal dominant genetic vascular disease, affecting the collagen type III, a component in the extracellular matrix of the arterial wall. Patients with vEDS are prone to arterial, intestine or uterine ruptures, which explain the severity of the disease. Mutations in COL3A1, gene encoding for collagen type III are usually heterozygous missense mutations responsible for the substitution of a glycine amino acid for another, which affects the triple helical conformational structure of the collagen type III. Variants of a splice site, deletions/insertions, are also encountered, and more rarely missense mutations not affecting a glycine residue, or alterations responsible for haploinsufficiency. The COL3A1 mutations are almost exclusively private, and a genotype/phenotype correlation has not been clearly studied. We reported the experience of the French reference center for vEDS of 215 patients and found a greater severity of the disease in those with a glycine substitution, or in frame insertion / deletion within the triple helix domain than in other genotypes: responsible variants of haploinsufficiency, missense variants not affecting glycine, or alteration of the N- or C-terminal ends. Furthermore, the phenotype of these last three genotype groups did not combine the complete phenotype described in vEDS especially no gastrointestinal complication. To better understand the alteration of the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall of patients with vEDS we used a new ultrasound technology, ultrafastecho, to visualize and measure the pulse wave velocity (PWV) locally on carotids, over the cardiac cycle. The PWV is a marker of arterial stiffness studied in atherosclerosis, and well known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. We have established normal values ultrafastecho parameters in 102 healthy volunteers and 37 patients with vEDS. This study found no difference in PWV, thus arterial stiffness, in early systole cardiac at diastolic blood pressure. However, in patients with vEDS, weaker stiffening of the arterial wall was observed when blood pressure increases during the cardiac cycle. We continued our explorations by ultrafastecho on a mouse model of vEDS, haploinsufficient for the collagen type III (Col3a1 heterozygous mice). We figured out that Col3a1 heterozygous mice presented the same response profile. Indeed a smaller increase in arterial stiffness while blood pressure was increasing secondary to vasopressor infusion was revealed in the mice compared to the wild mice. In conclusion, alterations of collagen type III in the vEDS affect the biomechanical properties of the arterial wall of the patient, through lower stiffening during the increase of blood pressure over the cardiac cycle. This provides a therapeutic approach for targeting treatment increasing arterial stiffness in vEDS in order to reduce the risk of arterial rupture.
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Tristan Mirault. Aspects physiopathologiques du syndrome d'Ehlers-Danlos vasculaire. Hématologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB128⟩. ⟨tel-01578131⟩

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