Implication des canaux sodium voltage-dépendant dans la réponse aux toxines chez Crassostrea gigas : le cas des phycotoxines paralysantes

Abstract : During bloom of microalgae producing paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), filtering bivalves can bio-accumulate a large quantity of toxins and become toxic for human consumption. The amount of accumulated PST can greatly vary from one individual to another within a bivalve population. Indeed, under our experimental conditions, the amount of accumulated PST by Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum, varied by a factor of 450. To explain such variability we hypothesized the existence of several forms of voltage-gated sodium channel (NaV), target of the PST, resulting in different sensitivities to PST. The main objective of this thesis was to understand whether there are relationships between nerve sensitivity to PST, the different forms of NaV and the amount of accumulated PST.The NaV was first characterized in C. gigas by a molecular biology approach. Two NaV genes were reported in C. gigas: CgNaV1, encoding a sodium channel and CgNaV2 encoding a channel potentially selective for sodium and calcium. Alternative splicing of CgNaV1 produced three variants (A, B and C) with different expression profiles: at the neuromuscular junctions for CgNaV1A, in the nerve cells for CgNaV1B and in both for CgNaV1C. The amino acid Q observed in the binding site of PST (domain II), of the sequence CgNaV1 for the 3 variants and in all individuals from the 4 studied populations possibly provide some PST resistance to oysters. Thus, the variants resulting from the genotyping/splicing of CgNaV1 would not therefore be the determining factor of the level of bioaccumulation in oysters.A second part allowed studying the nerve sensitivity to PST of C. gigas oyster in relation to the accumulation of PST by an electrophysiology approach. The sensitivity to saxitoxin (STX, a PST) of the cerebro-visceral nerves from oysters was assessed by studying their action potential (CNAP). C.gigas nerves have been shown to have sensitivity to STX of the micromolar range, which gives them intermediate sensitivity among bivalves. This nerve sensitivity may vary depending on the period at which the oysters were collected and potentially according to their physiological condition. A preexposure of oysters to A. minutum appears to increase nerve resistance to STX. However, there was no significant correlation between STX nerve sensitivity and PST content in the oyster digestive gland.Overall, it appears that the variability of the PST accumulation by oysters would result rather from a physiological plasticity, in terms of filtration, ingestion and assimilation, than from a differential sensitivity of the NaV.
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Floriane Boullot. Implication des canaux sodium voltage-dépendant dans la réponse aux toxines chez Crassostrea gigas : le cas des phycotoxines paralysantes. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0014⟩. ⟨tel-01578099⟩

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