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Modèles in vitro adaptés à l’étude de la relation entre la pollution de l’air intérieur et la santé respiratoire, application aux Composés Organiques Volatils (COV)

Abstract : Increase of respiratory diseases since the second half of the 20th century and emergence of specific symptoms related to closed environments contributed to suspect indoor air pollution, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOC), as a risk factor in the onset of these diseases. Epidemiological and experimental approaches are useful to determine its sources, determinants and effects on the human respiratory tract. Current experimental policies favor replacing animal experiments by alternative methods like in vitro methodologies, for economic and ethical reasons. Until now, in vitro models have been poorly developed to study environmental pollutants on respiratory cells. The objective of our work was to propose an experimental approach adapted to the study of the impact of environmental pollutants, particularly VOC, on human nasal epithelial cells. The strength of this work is to set up a methodology close to actual conditions of exposure, and apply them to indoor environment atmospheres. The methodology developed aimed to study reconstituted epithelium coming from primary culture of nasal cells, composed of several cell types, close to human respiratory epithelium; generate atmosphere charged with mono (formaldehyde) or multi-pollutant (VOC paint), and especially its analytical control (an essential step to validate our experimental approach); and repeated exposure (3 per week, until to two hours, over a total period of one month) at air-liquid interface without loss of cellular integrity, in dynamic conditions (under airflow) for gaseous pollutants, or static (without airflow) for particles. The setup of a morphological and histological approach allowed to complete biological effect (inflammatory response). Gaseous formaldehyde exposure at low concentration had no effect on inflammatory markers. VOC exposures on selected reconstituted epithelium (MucilAirTM, Epithelix Company) showed a decreased release of IL-8 depending on the dose and the number of exposure, without tissue damage. The mechanism of this effect needs to be further investigated. Responsiveness of the model, in terms of inflammation and structural changes of the epithelium was validated by assessing complex environmental mixture (tobacco smoke particles). Our innovative in vitro approach can be extended to the study of other multi-pollutant atmospheres (chemical, physical and biological) in order to get close to the actual conditions of exposure, but also by using other target organs.
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Gaëlle Bardet. Modèles in vitro adaptés à l’étude de la relation entre la pollution de l’air intérieur et la santé respiratoire, application aux Composés Organiques Volatils (COV). Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB140⟩. ⟨tel-01578079⟩

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