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Tolérance maternelle et néonatale des antirétroviraux pendant la grossesse à l’ère des multithérapies

Abstract : Our objective was to study potential associations between antiretroviral treatment and obstetrical or neonatal complications in a population of HIV-positive pregnant women. Most of the analyses were conducted with data from the French Perinatal Cohort (ANRS-EPF), an ongoing multicenter national cohort with more than 20 000 mother-infant pairs included since 1986. In the recent years, most women receive combination antiretroviral therapies (cART ; 98% en 2013) and the trasnsmission rate is consistently under 1% : 0.6% (IC95% : 0.4%-0.8% for 2005-2013). Risk of preterm birth was significantly associated with cART, when compared to NRTI monotherapy or dual therapy, and with timing of treatment, higher for women treated at conception than for those initiating treatment during pregnancy. The occurrence of liver enzyme elevation was frequent (17%), and was associated both with preterm birth and with PI-based treatment, when compared to NNRTIs. LEE could be an intermediate factor between cART and preterm birth. The second part of this work was a study of congenital birth defect in the cohort, and showed an association between first trimester-exposure to efavirenz and neurological defects, but this concerned small numbers (n=4), and reached significance only in a sensitivity analysis. This association encourages us to maintain awareness concerning this molecule, considered teratogenic by the FDA but more and more largely prescribed. We also reported an association between first-trimester exposure to zidovudine and congenital heart defects. In a third part, we studied heart function, differences in contractility and septum thickness of the left ventricle was found, among girls exposed to a combination containing zidovudine and lamivudineThese results do not question the great progress of antiretroviral treatment in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, but they encourage us to continue epidemiologic surveillance of potential side effects, in order to optimize prescriptions for an improved benefit/risk ratio.
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Jeanne Sibiude. Tolérance maternelle et néonatale des antirétroviraux pendant la grossesse à l’ère des multithérapies. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS050⟩. ⟨tel-01576558⟩

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