Les substances naturelles en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (VIe-Ier millénaire BCE) : chimie et archéologie des matériaux exploités leurs propriétés adhésives et hydrophobes

Abstract : Natural substances and transformed organic products used for their adhesive and hydrophobic properties are rarely considered for the pre- and protohistorical periods in the North Western Mediterranean. These materials can however provide technological, economic, social and environmental information about ancient societies.A biomolecular approach was applied to answer questions related to the different types of natural substances exploited by ancient communities. Plant and animal products were identified as raw materials (resins, beeswax, fats or bitumen), or as processed (birch bar tar, pine tar, and mixtures).Experimental work allowed a better understanding of the chaîne opératoire required for the production of birch bark tar. Results showed that it is possible to distinguish between the different manufacturing processes based on molecular criteria.To investigate procurement strategies of plant raw materials, archaeobotanical data was integrated using a spatial approach.The analysis carried out has shown that Birch bark tar was found to be the major product utilised during the Neolithic, its method of production varying depending on the chrono-cultural area. This resource was also sometime transferred. Bitumen, on the other hand, was exploited only when locally available. A diversification of materials (beeswax and Pinaceae resins), suggesting different methods of procurement and processing, was mostly apparent for the Chassey culture, where there appears to be intensification in the use.During the Iron Age, pine tar is the major product in the Mediterranean area. Birch bark tar was only identified in Corsican protohistorical societies.
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Maxime Rageot. Les substances naturelles en Méditerranée nord-occidentale (VIe-Ier millénaire BCE) : chimie et archéologie des matériaux exploités leurs propriétés adhésives et hydrophobes. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015NICE2021⟩. ⟨tel-01571266⟩

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