Tourisme et environnement, le grand paradoxe de l'écotourisme. Exemples de Madagascar et du Costa Rica.

Abstract : The tourist industry has seen spectacular development from the second half of the 20th Century. According to the World tourism organization, 50 million tourists in 1960 expanded to 561 million tourists in 1995 and to 980 million in 2011.Along with this phenomenon, globalization has increased ecological thinking and the Meadows Report in 1972 highlights political awareness to environmental problems around the world. From the Bruntland Report in 1987 to the Earth Summit in Rio and more recently, the Rio +20 Summit, the association of the tourism in the principles of sustainable development would seem to correspond to expectations of societies today. Does tourism induce environmental degradation or on the contrary, does it allow the preservation of natural sites ? Field work in Madagascar and Costa Rica has led me to question the pertinence of development strategies based on the notion of ecotourism, and an indepth analysis of this notion and it’s concrete application to major sites at an international level. It is a close examination in time and space of the establishment of ecotourism on these two areas of research and it’s consequences on the economie, social, cultural and environmental system.
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Clemence Ratel. Tourisme et environnement, le grand paradoxe de l'écotourisme. Exemples de Madagascar et du Costa Rica.. Géographie. Université d'Angers, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ANGE0019⟩. ⟨tel-01565840⟩

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