Effets des perturbations anthropiques sur la biogéochimie dans l'océan côtier à l'échelle globale

Abstract : The coastal ocean suffers from the convergence of multiple anthropogenic stressors with climate change at the forefront. Combined stresses from global warming, ocean acidification, eutrophication and deoxygenation threaten coastal ecosystems and thus their services that humans rely on. Unfortunately, the coastal ocean's large spatiotemporal heterogeneity limits our understanding of the biogeochemical processes involved and their responses to anthropogenic perturbations. The current database of coastal observations remains insufficient, and global biogeochemical ocean models have long been inadequate to the study of the global coastal ocean. Indeed, the spatial resolution of these models has been too coarse to resolve key small-scale coastal processes. However, continual improvements in computational resources now allow global simulations to be made with sufficiently high model resolution that begins to be suitable for coastal ocean studies. In this thesis, we propose to study the evolution of the coastal ocean biogeochemistry at the global scale over recent decades using higher resolution versions of the global physical-biogeochemical model NEMO-PISCES. After evaluating of the global representation of the coastal biogeochemistry in this ocean model, we estimate the current role of the coastal ocean in the ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon and we study the impact of the anthropogenically driven changes in riverine inputs on the coastal biogeochemistry. From simulations made at 3 different spatial resolutions (200 km, 50 km, 25 km), we esteem that the 50-km model grid offers the best compromise between quality of results and computational cost. The upgrade to 25 km does not appear to provide significant improvement in model skill of simulating coastal biogeochemical fields. After evaluating the model, we provide an estimate of the coastal-ocean sink of anthropogenic carbon, the first study to do so with a global 3-D model. In our simulation, the coastal zone absorbs only 4.5% of the anthropogenic carbon taken up by the global ocean during 1993-2012, less than the 7.5% proportion of coastal-to-global-ocean surface areas. Coastal uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of coastal waters to the average level found in the open-ocean mixed layer. Finally, the anthropogenic perturbation in riverine delivery of nutrients to the ocean has limited impact on the coastal carbon cycle when integrated across all coastal regions, but locally it can induce sharp biogeochemical contrasts. For example, the North Sea shows minor biogeochemical changes following the moderate local trend in nutrient riverine inputs, which is in dramatic contrast to the East China Sea where extensive deoxygenation and acidification are driven by sharp increases in riverine nutrient inputs.
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Timothée Bourgeois. Effets des perturbations anthropiques sur la biogéochimie dans l'océan côtier à l'échelle globale. Océanographie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV015⟩. ⟨tel-01565302⟩

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