Identification de nouveaux mécanismes de carcinogénèse et facteurs pronostiques des tumeurs hépatocellulaires

Abstract : Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are rare benign liver tumors occuring in young women taking oral contraception and complications as haemorrhage or malignant transformation in hepatocellular carcinomes (HCC) could occur. A genotype/phenotype classification has defined different subgroups of tumors : HCA with inactivating mutations of HNF1A, HCA with activating mutations of β-catenin and inflammatory HCA with activation of the JAK/STAT pathway. We have identified activation mutations of GNAS, that codes for the alpha subunit of the Gs protein in a subgroup of inflammatory HCA and in patients with HCA and McCune Albright syndrom, a rare disease that combined endocrine tumor, bone fibrous dysplasia and « cafe au lait » skin macula. These findings highlight the crosstalk between the cyclic AMP pathway induced by GNAS mutation with the JAK/STAT pathway. HCC are the most frequent primary liver tumors worldwide and mainly occur on cirrhosis due to various risk factor as hepatitis B and C virus, alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome. HCC is due to the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in the malignant hepatocytes. We have identified TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) promoter mutations as the most frequent somatic genetic alterations in HCC. These mutations were also found in cirrhotic premalignant nodules underlying their role in tumor initiation and malignant transformation. In contrast, the study of the different steps of malignant transformation of HCA into HCC using next generation sequencing and TERT promoter screening have shown that activatiing mutation of β-catenin is an early genetic alteration whereas TERT promoter mutation is required in a second step to promote a full malignant transformation. We have also identified a prognostic molecular signature, the 5-gene score, in patients with HCC treated by liver resection. The 5-gene score predicts tumor recurrence and disease specific survival and has been validated in different cohorts of patients worldwide. Finally, we have shown that adeno-associated virus type 2 is involved in liver carcinogenesis on normal liver through insertional mutagenesis in key cancer genes as TERT, CCNA2, MLL4 and TNFSF10. These results have underlined a new oncogenic virus involved in HCC development, identified new genetic alterations involved in malignant transformation on cirrhosis and normal liver and a new prognostic molecular signature that will help to guide treatment of patients with HCC in the future.
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Jean-Charles Nault. Identification de nouveaux mécanismes de carcinogénèse et facteurs pronostiques des tumeurs hépatocellulaires. Hématologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB122⟩. ⟨tel-01561726⟩

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