Durabilité du travail et prévention en adhérence : le cas de la dimension territoriale des déchets dans l’activité de tri des emballages ménagers

Abstract : This thesis is a part of the studies carried out on organizational dynamics regarding occupational risks prevention, led in particular in the French National Institute for Research and Safety (INRS). The key issue is to put forward terms and conditions of prevention which take into account the work realities and industrial realities.From interventions carried out in five waste sorting centres for household packaging, in a context of industrialization of the waste recycling sector, this research aims to better understand the work of sorting operator, in order to determine vectors for actions in prevention. The waste sorting centres are productive entities, part of green business sector, where industrial challenges carry two major dimensions of sustainable development: territoriality and social sustainability.The method that we chose aims to put forward an objectification of the waste sorting operator’s work activity, taking into account the specifics of this sector, in the prospect of a sustainable prevention. To do so, an analysis of the work activity, according to the ergonomics work analysis method (EWA) was conducted, complete by several confrontation tools used with workers, both individually and collectively.The results showed that waste sorting centres are production sites located in a specific territorial context. Workers have to manage the production while taking into account the limits of their technical system, faced with waste as a territorialized object. Waste comes from separate households’ collection and is brought in the centre for the purpose of being sorted. It has territorialized characteristics, depending on specific territorial economical and social factors. Additionally, political factors regarding choices in terms of waste collecting and sorting, factors related to the consumption pattern and households’ lifestyle on the territory, factors related to the morphological features of the territory, and related to territorial attractiveness are also considered. However, this dimension is not taken into account during both the waste sorting centres design phase and the implementation of prevention strategies. The national testing phase for an extension of waste sorting instructions that we contributed to led to, argue that a disconnection was taking place between the characteristics of the technical system and the characteristics of the territory. This disconnection may lead to work intensification, directly impacting work sustainability.These results allow us to put forward two directions for actions in prevention in order to contribute to the design of sustainable sorting work systems. The first aims to better identify the coordination between actors belonging to different decision-making levels: some internal stakeholders, within the sorting centres, and external actors, on a territorial scale. To achieve this goal, the field of ergonomics has been shifted to mobilize theoretical frameworks originating from other disciplinary approaches, as proximity economics. This shifting aims to better take into account the requirements of industrial realities, and to produce mechanisms mobilizing these actors to satisfy the need for an effective transformation of work situations. The second direction aspire to put forward recommendations for the design of technical and organizational plastic systems, i.e. systems which leave sufficient rooms of manoeuver, factor for operators’ health, and that make work systems more efficient. The contributions of this thesis lead to develop an approach of prevention « in connection » which articulate the essential requirements of a regulatory prevention, and the industrial realities of the productive organization, for which three requirements have been identified: (i) develop the prevention problem from the knowledge co-production with workers, (ii) articulate work and industrial performance requirements, (iii) including prevention into territorialized industrial projects.
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Leila Boudra. Durabilité du travail et prévention en adhérence : le cas de la dimension territoriale des déchets dans l’activité de tri des emballages ménagers. Sociologie. Université de Lyon, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LYSE2171⟩. ⟨tel-01561149⟩

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