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Les mécanismes de la neuropathie auditive AUNA1

Abstract : Auditory neuropathy is a type of deafness characterized by an alteration of the inner hair cells (which detect the acoustic waves and transform them into neural messages) and/or of the primary afferent neurons (which conduct the neural messages to the cochlear nucleus), associated with a normal activity of the outer hair cells (which amplify the acoustic waves).AUNA1 is the first hereditary auditory neuropathy which has been described. It is caused by a point mutation in the promoter of the DIAPH3 gene, resulting in an overexpression of DIAPH3. The DIAPH3 protein, a formin family member, is known to promote the actin filament nucleation and elongation and to stabilize the microtubules.We studied the AUNA1 mechanisms using a transgenic mouse model which overexpresses the diap3 gene, the mouse homologue of DIAPH3. Transgenic mice develop a deafness whose characteristics are similar to the ones of AUNA1. The hearing loss is due to a defect in the inner hair cell activity. The synaptic activity and the potassium currents of these cells are not altered. However, electron microscopy reveals a fusion of the stereocilia (cytoplasmic expansions which detect the acoustic waves) and a disruption of the cuticular plate (plateform which maintains stereocilia). By immunolabeling, we showed an invasion of the cuticular plate by microtubules. Eventually, we demonstrated that Diap3 is located in the inner hair cell cuticular plate, suggesting that the overexpression of diap3 provokes a remodeling of the inner hair cell microtubule network, underlying the AUNA1 deafness.
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Clément Surel. Les mécanismes de la neuropathie auditive AUNA1. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT093⟩. ⟨tel-01560972⟩

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