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Etude des dommages de l'ADN impliquant des pontages ADN-protéines et ADN-polyamines

Abstract : A DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) occurs when a protein becomes covalently bound to DNA. This kind of lesions seems to affect several metabolic processes, including DNA replication, transcription, repair and recombination. This PhD work deals with crosslinks which are formed through a one-electron oxidation of DNA. Guanine exhibits the lowest ionization potential among DNA components, therefore it is readily oxidized leading to the formation of a radical cation, which is involved in the formation of numerous oxidative DNA lesions. In a previous study, a crosslink between guanine moiety and a lysine residue, generated subsequently to a one electron oxidation of a TGT oligonucleotide in the presence of a trilysine peptide, has been described. The mechanism of formation of this adduct relies on the nucleophylic addition of the ε amino group of lysine onto the C8 position of the guanine radical cation. The aim of the present work was to characterize the guanine-lysine adduct and to quantify this lesion in isolated DNA and then in cellular DNA, and to investigate their implication in DNA-protein crosslinks. Several nucleophylic species are able to react with the guanine radical cation. We focused on polyamines, which are organic cations localized in the nucleus of cells at millimolar concentration ranges. These molecules are involved in stabilization and condensation of DNA, and participate also in numerous cellular processes. The relation between polyamine and cancer has been widely described. The mechanism by which dysregulation in their metabolism is related to carcinogenesis is still unknown.In the first part of this project, we focused on the synthesis and the characterization of these lesions as modified nucleosides. Subsequently, we have developed and optimized methods of quantification of these damages, using HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Thanks to these analytical methods, we have demonstrated that guanine-lysine and guanine-polyamines adducts could be formed in isolated DNA following a one electron oxidation. Crosslinks between guanine and lysine have been highlighted in DNA extracted from THP1 cells exposed to laser pulses at 266 nm. We have then developed several crosslinks models between a peptide and an oligonucleotide, in order to investigate the chemical structure of the crosslink and determine whether it could occur between guanine and lysine. Guanine-polyamines adducts have also been detected in DNA extracted from sperm cells. These results open new prospects in the understanding of the physiological role of polyamines as well as their involvement in male fertility.
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Stéphanie Silerme. Etude des dommages de l'ADN impliquant des pontages ADN-protéines et ADN-polyamines. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Grenoble, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014GRENV050⟩. ⟨tel-01558987⟩

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