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Altérations physiologiques et récupération à long terme dans un modéle murin de séparation associée à une restriction du temps d'accés à l'alimentation : un outil pour l'étude des conséquences de l'anorexie mentale

Abstract : Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder mainly developed in adolescent girls and young women. It is characterized by an obsessive search for thinness, a profound undernutrition and a distorted self-image.It is associated with multiple endocrine and metabolic disturbances, decreased bone mass and microarchitectural alteration. Some of the developed adaptations are supposed to be involved in the blockade of the pathologic state. Unfortunately, these adaptations are poorly known and most of them cannot be studied on patients. So it is necessary to develop an animal model which mimics the main consequences observed in human pathology and allows studying the recovery process. For this purpose we adapted a murine model of time restricted feeding associated with chronic stress induced by separation-based anorexia (SBA). C57B1/6 female mice are submitted to a long term SBA protocol (10 weeks) and then a long term phase of recovery (10 weeks). At the beginning of the protocol mice are 8 weeks old, so their fast growth is finishing. SBA protocol induced a rapid and significant loss of body weight. Body composition analysis by DEXA showed a 40% decrease of the fat mass, a progressive loss of lean mass and a blockade of bone mass acquisition. Mice deveoped a high glucose tolerance. The observation of vaginal smears revealed a disruption of the estrous cycle and ovarian histology showed an atrophy of the ovaries. These two alterations suggest a major alteration of reproductive functions. These animals showed a very low leptinemia, and the GH/IGF-1 axis was disrupted. The study of bone alteration by microtomography indicated an alteration of bone microarchitecture and of cortical bone mass, mimicking osteoporosis often described in AN patients. Body weight, lean and fat masses were normalized quickly during the REC protocol. Bone mineral content still low after 2 weeks of REC protocol was fully corrected after 10 weeks. The estrous cycle ovarian size and the GH/IGF-I were normalized. Surprisingly, hypoleptinemia persisted even after 10 weeks of REC and despite the normalization of the fat mass. This result has been confirmed by the low level of leptin gene expression in various adipose tissues. Finally, the SBA protocol is valuable model of AN because numerous physiological alterations described in AN are mimicked in this model. The recovery phase revealed the high capacity of mice to normalize the long term alterations. Persitent hypoleptinemia could contribute to the normalization of body composition. However, the balance between central and peripheral effects of the uncorrected hypoleptinemia remains to be determined. This persisting hypoleptinemia could be used for the revision of the therapeutic strategies aiming to correct AN-induced osteoporosis.
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Sara Zgheib. Altérations physiologiques et récupération à long terme dans un modéle murin de séparation associée à une restriction du temps d'accés à l'alimentation : un outil pour l'étude des conséquences de l'anorexie mentale. Physiologie [q-bio.TO]. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014DUNK0428⟩. ⟨tel-01558924⟩

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