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Mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la plasticité neurovasculaire des cellules souches de glioblastome

Abstract : Glioblastomas (GBM, WHO grade IV) are highly aggressive brain tumors in which extensive vascularization is associated with hypoxia and necrosis. GBM cell of origin is controversial; however multipotent stem-like subpopulations have been identified within tumors, and could account for GBM radio/chemoresistance. These glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSC) actively promote tumoral vascularization processes by closely interacting with vascular cells composing tumoral niches. The Notch cascade is a canonical signaling pathway required during developmental stages and adult homeostasis of the central nervous system and the associated vascular network. In the context of GBM, this molecular axis could induce gliomagenesis by promoting GSC maintenance in the perivascular niche. However, Notch-induced molecular mechanisms controlling GBM progression still remain elusive, due to divergent results observed in numerous reports. During the first part of my thesis work, I contributed to the assessment of Notch1 functions in GSC cultures isolated and characterized in our lab. Given a low Notch1 basal activation status in our GSCs, our approach was to constitutively activate this axis via lentiviral transduction. Following this forced activation, GSCs undergo drastic phenotypic changes and differenciate into perivascular-like or “pericyte-like” cells. This neurovascular transition of GSCs induces active tumoral vascularization by promoting normalization of the vascular network in vivo. Consequently, I questioned the molecular mechanisms downstream of Notch1 by focusing on TAL1 and SLUG transcription factors, two potential candidates controlling this neurovascular plasticity. For this purpose, I examined their contribution to the GSC vascular-like phenotype in an in vitro model of the perivascular niche; and in vivo by analyzing human GBM samples. Finally, I also observed that Notch1 activation modulates the activity of the proteasomal machinery, which could actively contribute to the molecular transition occurring in GSCs. This work highlights GSC phenotypic plasticity: a better understanding of these processes could lead to the design of therapies efficiently targeting GSCs and their associated vasculature.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01558240
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Submitted on : Friday, July 7, 2017 - 12:55:06 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, May 28, 2019 - 5:00:03 PM
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Sophie Guelfi. Mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la plasticité neurovasculaire des cellules souches de glioblastome. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Montpellier, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MONTT078⟩. ⟨tel-01558240⟩

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