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Traiter les troubles psychiatriques à l'aide de la stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu : approches comportementale et neurobiologique chez la souris

Abstract : Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique in which a low current is delivered via electrodes on the scalp to modulate cortical excitability. lt is a promising tool in the treatment of various neurological and psychiatrie illnesses, yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain unknown. The goal of my thesis was to describe the effects of repeated tDCS on behavior in mice, and to offer preliminary insights regarding the neurobiological mechanisms involved. Our data indicate that repeated tDCS over the frontal lobe (0.2 mA, 2x20 min/day, 5 consecutive days) has antidepressant prope11ies and improves memory. Interestingly, tDCS increased precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus, suggesting that tDCS may increase neurogenesis levels in this brain area. Lastly, tDCS decreased the behavioral and/or the molecular effects of nicotine, alcohol and cocaïne. For example, tDCS attenuated cocaine-induced Zif268 expression in specific corticostriatal circuits. Altogether, our findings provide pre-clinical evidence that tDCS cou Id be a beneficial adjunct treatment for several psychiatrie disorders. Our animal mode! will be useful to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of tDCS on behavior.
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Solène Pedron. Traiter les troubles psychiatriques à l'aide de la stimulation transcrânienne par courant continu : approches comportementale et neurobiologique chez la souris. Psychiatrie et santé mentale. Université de Franche-Comté, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BESA3007⟩. ⟨tel-01558225⟩

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