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Modélisation de l'organisation fonctionnelle de la lecture chez le sujet sain : Etude en EEG-HR par reconstruction de sources et modèles causaux dynamiques. Applications aux patients épileptiques

Abstract : Writing and then a fortiori reading is a too recent invention for evolution to develop a specialized neuronal substrate sustaining the visual word form recognition. Thereby functional region underlying reading process rest on cortical area dedicate to language and visual recognition of objects. However, complete identification of a word requires beyond the orthographic decryption, phonological decoding and semantic recovery. Numerous neuroimaging studies and in particular with fMRI have tried to localize the functional regions sustaining these different cognitive processes. Nonetheless, the weak temporal resolution of fMRI do not allowed revealing the dynamic of integration within the reading network. Electrophysiological recording as EEG permit to show the neuronal dynamic thanks to its excellent temporal resolution. However, localization of the cortical area having generate the scalp electrical field is a complex methodological issue. Since a decade, numerous breakthroughs in methodology allow not only to localize functional region but also the temporal dynamic of their interaction. Moreover, from a localisationnist point of view, current research have adopted an hodotopic vision supposing that the function of a region is more depend of its connectivity with the other region of the network than of its precise location. New methodologies as dynamic causal modeling permit to show the network structure and its dynamic integration. The goal of this thesis has been to use latest methodological development to reveal not only the network of the word recognition, but also to propose a functional model of the integration of the visual stimuli within this network. In particular, we have shown the importance of feedback connection on bottom up processing in word recognition as it has been shown for objects recognition. In addition, we have applied those methodologies to epileptic patients to reveal the influence of a left temporal lesion on the functional reorganization of the reading network.
Keywords : Reading EEG DCM
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Gaëtan Yvert. Modélisation de l'organisation fonctionnelle de la lecture chez le sujet sain : Etude en EEG-HR par reconstruction de sources et modèles causaux dynamiques. Applications aux patients épileptiques. Psychologie. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENS044⟩. ⟨tel-01556472⟩

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