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La matière organique particulaire dans les systèmes côtiers : composition, dynamique et forçages à l'échelle multi-systémique

Abstract : Pelagic coastal systems are characterized by multiple inputs of particulate organic matter (POM) from autochthonous (phytoplankton) and allochthonous (continental, benthic) origin whose spatial and temporal variability can be high. The aims of my PhD were to 1) quantify POM composition in pelagic coastal systems, 2) determine the forcings to its spatio-temporal dynamics and 3) investigate the link between bacteria and POM composition. This study was conducted on twelve systems (estuary, lagoon, bays, rias, littoral) distributed over the three maritime facades of France by combining the use of elemental and isotopic ratios (composition), fatty acids (POM-bacteria link) and multivariate analysis (forcings).At multi-systems and/or intra-system scale, two main gradients are observed:- an inshore (higher continental and benthic contribution) - offshore gradient (phytoplanktonic POM) mainly related to hydrodynamics and sedimentary hydrodynamics (river flow, resuspension of benthic material) and to the proximity to allochthonous sources- a South (POM related to diazotrophy) – North (absence of this POM) gradient, associated to the trophic status (oligo vs meso/eutrophy) of the studied systems.The seasonality of spatio-temporal dynamics of POM composition is highly variable depending on the station. It is in general higher near the coast and lower offshore and upstream in the studied estuary. This dynamic is also strongly associated to sedimentary hydrodynamics.Finally, this study highlight that bacterial biomass is mainly associated to continental and benthic POM.
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Camilla Liénart. La matière organique particulaire dans les systèmes côtiers : composition, dynamique et forçages à l'échelle multi-systémique. Géochimie. Université de Bordeaux, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BORD0255⟩. ⟨tel-01552291⟩

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