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Pathogénie de Dickeya dianthicola et Dickeya solani chez Solanum tuberosum, développement et évaluation de stratégies de lutte biologique

Abstract : Pectobacterium and Dickeya phytopathogens are the causative agents of the blackleg and soft rot diseases on S. tuberosum, in the field or during tuber-storage. Today, no effective method permits to control these bacteria. The FN3PT / RD3PT conducts plant pathology and epidemiology researches to understand the life traits and physiology of these pathogens and propose adapted control solutions. The aim of this study was dual: to compare the virulence of two emerging pathogens D. dianthicola and D. solani, and to study biocontrol strategies directed at Pectobacterium and Dickeya. First, two strains were isolated from field samples, D. dianthicola RNS04.9 and D. solani 3337. The virulence of these strains was compared in tuber and whole plant-assays. This step required the development of appropriate pathosystems. D. dianthicola RNS04.9 appeared more virulent than D. solani 3337 on whole plant tests, while the opposite was observed on tubers tests. Genome comparisons and functional studies led to the dientifiation of some genetic traits unique to each strain such as the catabolism of arabinose and urea in D. solani 3337 and that of rhamnose in D. dianthicola RNS04.9. A screening of bacterial isolates was also performed to identify biocontrol agents capable of inhibiting the growth of Dickeya and Pectobacterium strains. Six isolates, belonging to the Pseudomonas or Bacillus genera were selected. The greenhouse trials have shown the efficacy of a combination of 3 Pseudomonas to reduce blackleg symptoms caused by D. dianthicola and its transmission to the offspring. The sequence of the genome of each biocontrol agents has been determined. With these data, the survival of biocontrol agents in the soil has been investigated by qPCR. Finally, a screening of chemical compounds was carried out on the basis of their anti-quorum sensing, i.e. their ability to quench the expression of Pectobacterium virulence factors. Two quorum-sensing inhibitors have been identified. As a conclusion to this work, opportunities to mix the various biocontrol strategies directed at pectinolytic pathogens is discussed.
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Submitted on : Saturday, July 1, 2017 - 1:07:50 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01552181, version 1

Citation

Yannick Raoul Des Essarts. Pathogénie de Dickeya dianthicola et Dickeya solani chez Solanum tuberosum, développement et évaluation de stratégies de lutte biologique. Chimie thérapeutique. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PA112099⟩. ⟨tel-01552181⟩

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