Multilabel classification of EEG-based combined motor imageries implemented for the 3D control of a robotic arm

Abstract : Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) replace the natural nervous system outputs by artificial ones that do not require the use of peripheral nerves, allowing people with severe motor impairments to interact, only by using their brain activity, with different types of applications, such as spellers, neuroprostheses, wheelchairs, or among others robotics devices. A very popular technique to record signals for BCI implementation purposes consists of electroencephalography (EEG), since in contrast with other alternatives, it is noninvasive and inexpensive. In addition, due to the potentiality of Motor Imagery (MI, i.e., brain oscillations that are generated when subjects imagine themselves performing a movement without actually accomplishing it) to generate suitable patterns for scheming self-paced paradigms, such combination has become a common solution for BCI neuroprostheses design. However, even though important progress has been made in the last years, full 3D control is an unaccomplished objective. In order to explore new solutions for overcoming the existing limitations, we present a multiclass approach that considers the detection of combined motor imageries, (i.e., two or more body parts used at the same time). The proposed paradigm includes the use of the left hand, right hand, and both feet together, from which eight commands are provided to direct a robotic arm comprising fourteen different movements that afford a full 3D control. To this end, an innovative switching-mode scheme that allows managing different actions by using the same command was designed and implemented on the OpenViBE platform. Furthermore, for feature extraction a novel signal processing scheme has been developed based on the specific location of the activity sources that are related to the considered body parts. This insight allows grouping together within a single class those conditions for which the same limb is engaged, in a manner that the original multiclass task is transformed into an equivalent problem involving a series of binary classification models. Such approach allows using the Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithm; which has been shown to be powerful at discriminating sensorimotor rhythms, but has the drawback of being suitable only to differentiate between two classes. Based on this perspective we also have contributed with a new strategy that combines together the CSP algorithm and Riemannian geometry. In which the CSP projected trials are mapped into the Riemannian manifold, from where more discriminative features can be obtained as the distances separating the input data from the considered class means. These strategies were applied on three new classification approaches that have been compared to classical multiclass methods by using the EEG signals from a group of naive healthy subjects, showing that the proposed alternatives not only outperform the existing schema, but also reduce the complexity of the classification task
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Cecilia Lindig León. Multilabel classification of EEG-based combined motor imageries implemented for the 3D control of a robotic arm. Human-Computer Interaction [cs.HC]. Université de Lorraine, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0016⟩. ⟨tel-01549139⟩

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