Variabilité des écosystèmes marins de l'échelle inter-annuelle au dernier cycle glaciaire-interglaciaire

Abstract : Climate variability influences marine primary productivity and marine species distribution over all timescales, from seasonal to interannual variability and glacial-interglacial cycles. The links between climate and marine ecosystems are still sparsely known so that the predictions of futur changes are difficult. Moreover, because paleoclimate recorders extracted from marine archives are often linked to the functionning of the ecosystem, this lack of knowledge limits our ability to reconstruct past climate variability.This thesis work aims at improving our knowledge of these links between climate and marine ecosystems : we have looked into marine productivity changes during the last glacial-interglacial cycle, but we also examined the "end-to-end" ecosystem response to inter-annual to decadal variability in a pre-industrial climate. This work uses a climate model (IPSL-CM), a bio-geochemical model (PISCES) and a model of high trophic levels (APECOSM).First, we show that the link between Indian summer monsoon intensity and marine primary productivity in the Arabian Sea is indirect. Indeed, it appears necessary to consider the monsoon pattern, such as the Findlater Jet position, which drives the Ekman dynamics in the region, as well as its intensity to understand the productivity changes.Second, we study the marine productivity changes off the Congo river mouth and their links with the river runoff and the African atmospheric dynamics. This work shows that the relationship between monsoon intensity and trade winds intensity, often used to reconstruct past changes, is not always verified. Depending on the climate, thermal or dynamical effects are more or less prominent drivers of the simulated changes in precipitation and winds. Productivity off the Congo river mouth, which is mainly located in the subsurface, seems more affected by the ocean and atmosphere dynamics than by the river supply in nutrients.Third, we study the inter-annual variability effects over past productivity changes and over the climatic signal potentially recorded in the biological climate proxies.Finally, the last part of the thesis focuses on high trophic levels marine organisms response to climate variability at different frequencies. This study shows that marine organisms response to environmental changes varies with the organism' size and habitat.
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Priscilla Le Mezo. Variabilité des écosystèmes marins de l'échelle inter-annuelle au dernier cycle glaciaire-interglaciaire. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV003⟩. ⟨tel-01548500⟩

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