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Exploration des interactions virus-hôte et leur importance pour l'adaptation microbienne à travers du CRISPRs

Abstract : Interactions between the members of a microbial community can be a means of adaptation in the environment. Among the many interactions that take place in an ecosystem and have been seen to play a major role on microbial diversity and population dynamics is that of prokaryotic viruses and their hosts. Viruses can also mediate the transfer of genetic material between prokaryotes (transduction), which could be a mechanism for rapid adaptation. In order to determine the potential impact of viruses and transduction, we need a better understanding of the dynamics of interactions between viruses and their hosts in the environment. Data on environmental viruses are scarce, and methods for tracking their interactions with prokaryotes are needed. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), which contain viral sequences in bacterial genomes, might help document the history of virus-host interactions in the environment. Thus, this thesis aimed to explore virus-host interactions in a given environment through CRISPRs. Viruses in the cryosphere have been seen to be abundant, highly active and with broad host ranges. These characteristics could make viral transduction a key driver of adaptation in these environments. Public metagenomes created from environments over a range of temperatures were examined through sequence and CRISPR analysis. In this fashion, certain virus-host interaction dynamics were found to have a correlation with temperature. A workflow was then developed to create a network linking viruses and their hosts using CRISPR sequences obtained from metagenomic data from Arctic glacial ice and soil. The creation of CRISPR-based infection networks provided a new perspective on virus-host interactions in glacial ice. Moreover, we searched for transduction events in metagenomic data by looking for viral sequences containing microbial DNA. Further analysis of the viral sequences in the CRISPRs indicated that Ralstonia phages might be agents of transduction in Arctic glacial ice.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01546401, version 1

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Laura Sanguino Casado. Exploration des interactions virus-hôte et leur importance pour l'adaptation microbienne à travers du CRISPRs. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ECDL0033⟩. ⟨tel-01546401⟩

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