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Rôle des écosystèmes forestiers dans le transfert des HAP de l’atmosphère aux sols : étude des placettes du réseau RENECOFOR

Abstract : Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They are produced by incomplete combustion of organic matter and can be transported over long distances in the atmosphere. Because of their organic and hydrophobic nature they have a strong affinity for lipid surfaces and compartments containing organic matter. They can therefore be adsorbed on the plant matrices and on the organic matter of the soils. The canopy, due to its important aerodynamic roughness, constitutes an important sink for PAHs.In this study, we have monitored the evolution of PAHs concentrations over a period of 20 years (from 1993 to 2011) in 3 compartments of the forest ecosystem: vegetation (leaves / needles), organic layers (OL, OF and OH) and organo-mineral layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-40 cm) of French forest sites monitored by the RENECOFOR network (National Network for Long-term FOrest ECOsystem Monitoring).4 sites distributed throughout France were selected according to different characteristics (type of forest species, climate, altitude, latitude, longitude, type of forest humus, organic carbon content, etc.). Thus, 14 PAHs, considered as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), were quantified.This study highlights the efficiency of vegetation in registering the history of air quality at forest sites. A general decrease in the concentration of PAHs in vegetation and in the atmosphere over the past 20 years has been observed.Vegetation plays the role of a pump that accumulates PAHs and transfers them to forest soils. Organic carbon content appears to be the most important parameter controlling PAHs accumulation in forest soils. Thus, PAHs transfer between the different forest compartments appears to depend on their physico-chemical properties and their ability to undergo dissipation mechanisms (leaching, degradation, etc.).Finally, this study shows that the organo-mineral layers of forest soils constitute a more important sink of (light, intermediate and heavy) PAHs than vegetation and organic layers in the forest ecosystem.
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Submitted on : Friday, June 23, 2017 - 4:26:09 PM
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Sara Negro. Rôle des écosystèmes forestiers dans le transfert des HAP de l’atmosphère aux sols : étude des placettes du réseau RENECOFOR. Autre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAA003⟩. ⟨tel-01546348⟩

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