Modélisations de la dynamique trophique d'un écosystème Méditerranéen exploité : le Golfe de Gabès (Tunisie)

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to improve the understanding of trophic structure and functioning of the gulf of Gabes in Tunisia. In order to reconcile environmental concerns and exploitation of marine resources, different ecosystem models have been developed to study the ecosystem dynamics and contribute to the discussion on the implementation of management plans. A spatial and temporal dynamic model “Ecospace” was built to evaluate the ecosystem consequences of different management measures based on scenarios derived from the current regulation. The results of simulations allowed to investigate the interactions between coastal and benthic trawl fishing and to identify areas where management measures are effective. An end-to-end model has been applied to the gulf of Gabes ecosystem to represent the dynamics of 11 high trophic level species, from climate forcing to fishing.This modelling approach consists in forcing the individual-based model "OSMOSE" by a biogeochemical model "ECO3M-Med". This model allowed to establish a coherent representation of the food web and simulate theoretical management scenarios of spatial fishing closure. The end-to-end model has also been used to study the sensitivity of a set of ecological indicators to fishing pressure. The simulation of different levels of fishing mortality showed that size indicators were the most relevant to monitor the impact of fishing in the gulf of Gabes. Finally, a comparative approach between several Mediterranean ecosystems was applied using the EcoTroph model to compare their trophic structures and explore the effects of different levels of fishing pressure through the analysis of their trophic spectra.
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Ghassen Halouani. Modélisations de la dynamique trophique d'un écosystème Méditerranéen exploité : le Golfe de Gabès (Tunisie). Sciences agricoles. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0076⟩. ⟨tel-01544041⟩

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