Le stage en entreprise : facteur de développement ? : un dispositif de formation structuré par des instruments langagiers : rôle du stage en formation initiale d’ingénieurs

Abstract : It is widely acknowledged today that the industrial placement is essential to academic study, even at university. However, few works have focused on the way in which the placement contributes to professional experience, the development and training of the students. The thesis undertaken at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines in Saint-Etienne (Graduate School of engineering) investigates to what extent the industrial placement could be a factor in the development of engineering students. Based on a socio-constructivist perspective and on the activity theory developed by Vygotsky’s approach, the thesis looks at the way in which the linguistic instruments structure the industrial placement itself, allowing a degree of reflexiveness and bringing to light contradictions in the activity systems between the company and the School as well as within the School itself.The theoretical approach allows us to establish the following hypotheses:-The industrial placement is integrated into a method of training that is set up in line with the rules of the community consisting of the authorities who validate the training. This methodology is embedded in the history of the profession. -The industrial placement is a way of socialising using the instruments because it allows the student to join a shared environment and to accept a set of rules around building a professional identity towards the engineering profession. The industrial placement gives the student a mechanism for conversation which allows him to modify and reconstruct the subjective reality, giving him a new professional identity. The written report and the viva voice are opportunities for the student to discuss the learning from the placement.-When the student presents his experience within the company, he is situated at the intersection of several activity systems: his own, that of the company at which he worked and that of the teacher who is going to validate this experience for his training, the engineering curriculum. We therefore characterise how the method proposed by the curriculum allows a level of reflexiveness and increased visibility of the contradictions experienced and how they can be overcome. We then look at to what extent these reflexions are contained within the written report and the viva voice..From an analysis of the history of engineering studies, we aim to understand the educational logic and the evolution of the industrial placement. An analysis of prescribed training courses is undertaken through the documents from the Engineering school. Questionnaires and interviews allow information about the placement to be recorded by the director of studies and of the students of the class of 2006 have on the placement. Then two case studies are undertaken based on the analysis of two students’ written reports and viva voices as well as interviews with their teachers.The data analysis showed that in order to work, a placement must be located in a variety of activity systems. The academic system which prescribes the placement is taken from the logic dependent on that of the authorities prescriptive to the engineering profession: companies and how they evolve, the politics of education, the CTI, the CEFI … On another scale, in the engineering curriculum that was observed, the activity systems questioned for this training course are those of the School, the company, the student, education and research. Finally, for the two students, we pointed out the convergences and the contradictions which exist between the activity system of a student, that of his teacher, that of the company, and that of the research.
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Nadine Dubruc. Le stage en entreprise : facteur de développement ? : un dispositif de formation structuré par des instruments langagiers : rôle du stage en formation initiale d’ingénieurs. Psychologie. Université Lumière - Lyon II, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009LYO20031⟩. ⟨tel-01543939⟩

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