Study of the antiepileptic drugs transport through the immature blood-brain barrier

Abstract : Resistance to Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) has been a major concern in infantile epilepsies such as for example the Dravet Syndrome. One hypothesis concerning the pharmacoresistance in epilepsy is that a decreased delivery of these drugs to the brain may occur in relation to changes in the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) function. BBB exhibits ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and SoLute Carrier (SLC) transporters at the surface of endothelial cells that control the blood-brain transport. Pharmacoresistance in epilepsy may be linked to changes in the functions of these transporters since some AEDs are substrates of the P-glycoprotein (P-gP) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) transporters. The increased expression of efflux transporters in epileptogenic tissue and the identification of polymorphisms in the efflux transporters genes of resistant patients further support this potential relationship. The interaction of endothelial cells with astrocytes and neurons during brain development could change the pattern of transporters in the BBB. AEDs are also known as either inducers or inhibitors of drug metabolic enzymes and membrane transporters. Taken together, these facts led us to test the following hypothesis: 1) the developing BBB in immature animals presents a different pattern of transporters that could change AEDs disposition in the brain of immature subjects; and 2) the chronic pharmacotherapy used in infantile epilepsies such as the Dravet Syndrome may change the transporters phenotype of the BBB. Our work showed that the expression of P-gP and BCRP increases during development as a function of age. We also showed the maturation of the BBB has an impact on brain disposition of the studied AEDs. We finally observed an increase in the expression of various ABC and SLC transporters induced by the pharmacotherapy of the Dravet Syndrome in immature animals. One of the drugs used, valproic acid, appeared nonetheless to reduce the efflux activity of P-gP in developing and adult animals, which was confirmed in an in-vitro model of the immature BBB. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the interaction between the developing BBB and the AEDs chronic treatment may lead to differences in brain disposition of the AEDs that may impact on the response to AEDs.
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Ricardo Viana Soares. Study of the antiepileptic drugs transport through the immature blood-brain barrier. Human health and pathology. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB087⟩. ⟨tel-01542781⟩

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