Qualité de vie dans le trouble d'usage d'alcool : une mesure de l'effet thérapeutique du point de vue des patients

Abstract : Context : The evolution of practices in alcohol use disorder field, following the model of patient-centered care, lets revisit the concept of remission for a better consideration of the patient's point of view, participating predominantly in the definition of therapeutic objectives and in their assessment. Yet few of these subjective criteria of the evaluation of patient outcomes have actually included the patient in their development. Until recently, quality of life instruments the most used among patients with alcohol use disorder were generic ones, and their development and particularly generation of items did not involve patients, but rather experts and were based on existing literature. Methods : we conducted a systematic literature review identifying randomized clinical trials testing an intervention in alcohol-dependent patients, and measuring its effectiveness on quality of life. We have listed the dimensions explored in the existing instruments. It has been shown that these instruments did not optimally explore the impact of alcohol dependence on quality of life in this population. On this, we have developed a scale specific for patients with alcohol use disorder, following the recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the development of "Patient-Reported Outcomes", namely involving patients extensively. We used the method of focus groups conducted in parallel in France and Great Britain with 38 patients with alcohol use disorder. These groups allowed the generation of a pool of items, secondarily tested by individual cognitive interviews with 31 patients, resulting in the final scale "Alcohol Quality of Life Scale" (AQoLS). We then validated the AQoLS scale on a sample of 285 French patients with alcoho use disorder, recruited from randomly selected centers in France. Results: The scale has 34 items developed, distributed in seven dimensions: social relationships, activities, living conditions, looking after self, negative emotions, sleep and loss of control. The validation study confirmed six of the seven dimensions, with a slightly different distribution of the items. The "looking after self" dimension disappeared in favor of a new dimension of self-esteem. Control and self-esteem dimensions are innovative in a health-related quality of life instrument in adults. The scale showed good psychometric properties, with good internal consistency (Cronbach = 0.96), and a moderate correlation with sub-scores of the SF-36 and EQ-5D. A qualitative complementary work could illustrate the links between the different affected areas, including the proximity in patients’ perception between self-esteem, loss of control and cognitive impairment. Conclusion : The move towards a model of patient-centered care allows considering a different approach of remission and to build and validate a measure of health-related quality of life close to the concerns of patients with a alcohol use disorder, AQoLS scale. Two innovative dimensions were attached to this concept: loss of control from the patient's perspective, and self-esteem.
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Amandine Luquiens. Qualité de vie dans le trouble d'usage d'alcool : une mesure de l'effet thérapeutique du point de vue des patients. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB118⟩. ⟨tel-01541568⟩

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