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La pratique des devoirs en classe et en-dehors de la classe : de l'analyse de l'activité à la conception d'environnements de formation

Abstract : The dual aim of this thesis is to analyze the individual and collective activity of teachers, parents, pupil support workers and children when dealing with school assignments and to envisage the conditions for the transformation of this practice. This study draws on the "course-of-action" research program and involved a) using video recordings and self-confrontation sessions to analyze the activity of the participants in two case studies pertaining to school assignment situations; one case study was conducted in the classroom and during extracurricular activities the other in the classroom and at home; b) designing a training environment for teachers, parents and support workers based on video artifacts which were created using data collected at the outset; c) implementing this training environment by confronting the participants with the video artifacts and analyzing their activity. The results we examined refer to the empirical and the technological aspects of the research. As far as the empirical aspect is concerned, the results show that despite the spatial and temporal separation of the situations, collective dimensions to the school assignment activity could be identified relating to the circulation of the children and the technical devices. The latter acted as “interfaces” making it possible to articulate the activity of the adults. This has enabled us to demonstrate: a) the existence of a culture shared by teachers, parents and pupil support workers which partially explains the durability of the practice of school assignments; b) cultural elements specific to each category of actors; c) certain asymmetries given that the teacher’s activity has a much greater influence on the collective action than the activity of the other adults; d) difficulties experienced by parents and pupil support workers when supervising the children’s work; e) a strong influence of the technical devices on the dynamics of the collective action. In light of these observations, we consider that the situations contributed very little to enhancing the children’s learning potential. The technological aspect involved identifying the training environment’s potential for helping the actors to appropriate the collective dimensions of their activity and to envisage other situations which would be more conducive to learning. To do this, their activity was analyzed during a confrontation with the episode of the video artifact referring to a temporal and spatial setting that, in practice, they did not usually have access to. The results highlight cognitive processes indicating that the participants had become more aware of the collective dimensions of the activity. At the same time, it emerged that the training environment had a limited potential for inciting these same actors to imagine new actions. These results, analyzed in relation to the specificities of the artifacts, the use made of them and the culture of the actors have opened up new perspectives for the transformation of the training environment.
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Rémi Bonasio. La pratique des devoirs en classe et en-dehors de la classe : de l'analyse de l'activité à la conception d'environnements de formation. Education. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015TOU20099⟩. ⟨tel-01538302⟩

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