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Le microbiote bactérien cuticulaire des fourmis de Guyane : pouvoir antibiotique et écologie des communautés

Abstract : The bacterial microbiota of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is known to have a defensive role in social insects, particularly for leaf-cutting ants (Formicidae: Attini) due to the use of antimicrobial molecules produced by cuticular actinobacteria. In this thesis, we studied the bacterial microbiota of ants in French Guyana using different approaches based on natural products chemistry and molecular ecology. The first chapter describes the isolation, identification, culture and biological evaluations of 43 cuticular actinobacteria. Antagonism bioassays of isolated strains and antibiotic activities of the culture extracts against human pathogens are presented as well as the identification of an antimicrobial cyclic dipeptide (Cyclo (LPro-LPhe)) isolated from a strain close to Streptomyces thioluteus. Moreover, the implementation of molecular networks applied to UPLC/MS/MS analysis of actinobacterial cocultures allowed us to explore the diversity of metabolites produced under these conditions. The second chapter presents a methodological study to evaluate the capacity of four DNA extraction methods, in terms of richness and composition of the cuticular bacterial microbiota, in high-throughput sequencing from Atta cephalotes and Pseudomyrmex penetrator. The results of metabarcoding highlight two methods of extraction and reveal inter- and intraspecific differences in the composition of cuticular bacterial communities. Finally, chapter three describes the composition of the cuticular bacterial microbiota of Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in ant garden and the results reveal the acquisition in the environment of a part of the microbiota. In parallel, metabolomic analyses of ant’s cuticle show, on the contrary, a greater specificity related to the ant species. Future researches focusing on statistical analysis strategies combining metabarcoding and metabolomics data are discussed.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 13, 2017 - 12:15:08 AM
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Caroline Birer. Le microbiote bactérien cuticulaire des fourmis de Guyane : pouvoir antibiotique et écologie des communautés. Chimie organique. Université de Guyane, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017YANE0003⟩. ⟨tel-01537793⟩



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