Pénétration et décontamination cutanée des actinides

Abstract : Actinides are alpha-emitting radioactive elements handled by nuclear industry workers and are part of the NRBC threat (nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical). Skin contamination represents a major exposure route for these radioelements. Skin decontamination is therefore essential to prevent any dispersion of contamination and systemic absorption through the skin. This work focused the evaluation of skin penetration behavior of two actinides: americium and plutonium, in different forms, in an ex vivo model, pig ear skin. The decontamination efficacy of various products was tested on this model as well as an in vitro model of bovine hide powder. The efficacy of a new DTPA hydrogel formulation was also tested. The localization of in different skin layers was carried out using various imaging techniques: emulsion autoradiography, solid track autoradiography, TASTRAK or iQID camera. Data showed differences in penetration, retention and localization profiles of the different actinides used in moderately soluble aqueous solution or in a solvent mixture. In addition, the latter modifies skin structure that is associated with an increase in skin penetration. Radioactivity activity measurements in skin layers agreed well with distribution as shown by the different autoradiography techniques. The results of decontamination protocols showed an equal efficacy of the soap (Trait rouge®) as compared to DTPA, that is used for decorporation therapy and also for decontamination. The hydrogel formulation showed a superior efficacy for the treatment of organic solutions and demonstrates the interest for development of other pharmaceutical formulations
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Anissa Tazrart. Pénétration et décontamination cutanée des actinides. Radiochimie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1046⟩. ⟨tel-01537749⟩

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