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Biodiversité fongique du raisin au vin : impact de l'activité anthropique

Abstract : The effects of different anthropogenic activities (vineyard, winery) on fungal populations from grape to wine were studied. To characterize these effects, it was necessary to access to the overall diversity of populations (pyrosequencing and spectroscopy FT-IR) but also to intra-specific diversity (FT-IR). Spectroscopy FT-IR has been validated for their ability to characterize the global population and to discriminate the strains for three species of non-Saccharomyces yeasts (NS). For the first time, it is shown that the grape berry is a limited source for NS yeasts while the winery seems to be a significant source; the air is an important vector for dissemination of these yeasts. In addition, persistence of NS yeast strains from year to year in the winery has been demonstrated. The studied anthropogenic activities modify the fungal diversity. Thus, lower biodiversity of grapes from organic modality was measured for the three vintages considered. The pressing / clarification step revises strongly fungal populations and the influence of the winery flora is confirmed. The addition of SO2 changes the population dynamics and favors the dominance of the species S. cerevisiae. The non-targeted chemical analysis shows, for the first time, that these wines can be distinguished at the end of the alcoholic fermentation (with or without SO2) depending on plant protection. Thus, the existence in wines of chemical and microbiological signatures associated with vineyard protection mode is highlighted.
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Submitted on : Monday, June 12, 2017 - 7:35:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01537740, version 1

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Cédric Grangeteau. Biodiversité fongique du raisin au vin : impact de l'activité anthropique. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS040⟩. ⟨tel-01537740⟩

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