Caractérisation de Fam65b, un nouvel inhibiteur de RhoA, impliqué dans la réponse des lymphocytes T en aval de CCR7

Abstract : The motility of naive T lymphocytes between the blood and secondary lymphoid organs is essential to the efficiency of the adaptative immune response, and allows those cells to meet their cognate antigen. Numerous signaling pathways are involved in this phenomenon, such as Rho GTPases, modulators of the actin cytoskeleton. We have identified Fam65b as a new regulator of T lymphocytes recirculation. We have shown that a decrease of Fam65b expression in human primary T cells increases the morphological polarization, the adhesion and the in vitro migration of those cells. Looking for a more physiological model, we developed, in the lab, a Fam65b KO (Knock-Out) mouse, specific to the T lineage. In those animals, T cells showed decreased levels of F-actin, an increase in the display of L-selectin and integrins, and a slower and less straight migration, compared to WT (Wild-Type) T cells. On the other hand, we weren't able to see any significant differences in the morphological polarisation, the in vitro migration or the homing capacity of the Fam65b KO T cells. We have identified Rho GTPases as mediators of the effects of Fam65b. We showed, in flow cytometry, that the amount of RhoA-GTP and Rac-GTP are increased in the Fam65b KO cells. The RhoA-GTP levels are also increased in human primary T cells expressing low levels of Fam65b. We have identified, in in vitro experiments, that Fam65b slows down RhoA loading with GTP by its GEF proteins, thus inhibiting RhoA activity. Moreover, we showed that Fam65b dissociates from RhoA after chemokine stimulation of T cells, thus allowing RhoA activation. The phosphorylation of Fam65b is a probable cause to this phenomenon. Fam65b also dissociates from Rac1 in these conditions, although no mechanism is yet known. Furthermore, the transcription factor FOXO1 controls the expression of Fam65b. FOXO1 is also known to control the homing capacity of T cells, since it controls the expression of molecules involved in the entry of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes. Fam65b, an atypical regulator of Rho GTPases activity, thus represents a new connection between the PI3K/FOXO1 and the Rho GTPases pathways.
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Laura Megrelis. Caractérisation de Fam65b, un nouvel inhibiteur de RhoA, impliqué dans la réponse des lymphocytes T en aval de CCR7. Immunologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB092⟩. ⟨tel-01535884⟩

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