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Activités de recherche scientifique et développement économique des territoires : le cas des sciences de la mer en Bretagne Occidentale

Abstract : The place of scientific research activities in the economic dynamics, especially their links with enterprises and territories have been studied largely since the 1990s, and have produced extensive literature. After first synthesizing and putting those studies into perspective, this thesis intends to contribute to the analysis of the role of this research in the economic development of territories, focusing on the local territory. Our reflexion is based on a double case study, both thematic and geographical: the field of marine sciences, with the territories of Brest and Western Brittany (France) as a baseline case. Three types of methods are implemented. First, to characterize the field of marine research, scientific production in that field is analyzed on a global scale. This step highlights the inclusion of this field in the institutional and territorial realities: locally based scientific entities, and even in some cases whole local research systems. Then, the economic benefits related to the localized spending of the research activity are estimated, mainly using an input-output modeling adapted to the regional and local scales. If the results do reveal the relatively limited nature of these benefits in our case study, they also reveal the good potential of the research activity in terms of outputs multipliers, added value and employment. Finally, the impacts of research on supply actors are grasped, namely "knowledge transfer" types of effects. A comparative survey is conducted on two territories: Brest and Bergen (Norway). Several factors, both internal and external to scientific institutions, appear to be decisive in the level and quality of such transfers at large: more specifically, the extent to which the research conducted locally and the locally existing economic activities match. A strong heterogeneity in the distribution of those effects – disciplinary, sectorial and spatial – can also be observed. Overall, the results shed singular and innovative light on the potential integration of the research activity in a territorial development strategy.
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Kevin Charles. Activités de recherche scientifique et développement économique des territoires : le cas des sciences de la mer en Bretagne Occidentale. Economies et finances. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016BRES0100⟩. ⟨tel-01534125⟩

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