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Optimisation de la durée de vie dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil sous contraintes de couvertureet de connectivité réseau

Abstract : Since the past two decades, a new technology called Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) which result in a fusion of embedded systems and wireless communications has emerged. A WSN is Ad hoc network composed of many sensors nodes communicating via wireless links and which can be deployed randomly or deterministically over a given interest region. Theses sensors can also collect data from the environment, do local processing and transmit the data to a sink node or Base Station (BS) via multipath routing. Thereby, a wide range of potential applications have been envisioned using WSN such as environmental conditions monitoring, wildlife habitat monitoring, industrial diagnostic, agricultural, improve health care, etc. Nevertheless,WSN are not perfect. Indeed, given their small size, their low cost and their deployment generally in hostile or difficult access areas, sensor nodes have some weaknesses such as: a limited energy, so a network lifetime limited, limited bandwidth, limited computations and communications capabilities, etc. To overcome these limitations, several research issues from were created in recent years, and the main issues focus on the optimization of energy consumption in order to improve the network lifetime. Other important researches focus on issues of coverage areas, placement strategies of sensor nodes and network connectivity. However, most solutions proposed in recent years to resolve these issues do not take into account all these issues that we cited above in resolutions models; while in many WSN applications such as monitoring critical region, wildlife habitat monitoring, agricultural application, a full coverage of the monitoring region and network connectivity are mandatory as well an energy-awareness network lifetime. The objective of this thesis is thus to propose new scheduling mechanisms for optimizing the network lifetime in WSN, while ensuring at any time of the network lifetime a full coverage of the monitored region and network connectivity. To achieve our goals, we have study and done proposal in two axes which are placement strategy of sensor nodes and scheduling mechanism in the MAC layer. For these, we have implemented a Distributed Scheduling Medium Access Control algorithm (DSMAC) based on our placement method. Furthermore, DSMAC enables to cover 100% of the monitored region, to ensure optimal network connectivity and also allows sensors node to save up to 30% of their energy compared to other MAC protocols such as TunableMAC.
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Diery Ngom. Optimisation de la durée de vie dans les réseaux de capteurs sans fil sous contraintes de couvertureet de connectivité réseau. Réseaux et télécommunications [cs.NI]. Université de Haute Alsace - Mulhouse; Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Dakar), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MULH9134⟩. ⟨tel-01531464⟩

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