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Recherche de précurseurs géophysiques à la transition solide-fluide dans les glissements-coulées affectant les matériaux argileux

Abstract : Landslides affecting clay materials sometimes evolve in quick earthflows that can constitute serious threats for populations and infrastructures. This thesis focuses on the search of possible geophysical precursors for the solid-fluid transition that characterizes these clay materials, and also on the understanding of the processes involved in this transition. Firstly, laboratory rheometrical experiments carried out on clays samples coming from five flow-like landslides yield the following results: 1) the water content deviation from the Atterberg liquid limit controls the stress at which the sample fluidizes; 2) sample fluidization is accompanied by a drop in the elastic shear modulus (hence, in the shear wave velocity); 3) fluidization is not accompanied by a change in electrical resistivity.Secondly, processing of data coming from a surveillance system (seismic, electric, geodesic and meteorological data) on the Pont-Bourquin landslide in Switzerland shows that: 1) landslide kinematics is correlated at short term (a few days) with rainfall; 2) material stiffness measured by seismic parameters is influenced at short term (a few days) by rainfall and at longer term (a hundred days) by temperature; 3) apparent electrical resistivity measured with a system of electrodes located on the stables banks of the landslide is very sensitive to changes at the surface and hardly exhibits possible changes at depth.
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Simon Carrière. Recherche de précurseurs géophysiques à la transition solide-fluide dans les glissements-coulées affectant les matériaux argileux. Sciences de la Terre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAU021⟩. ⟨tel-01528804⟩

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