Chauffage au bois et qualité de l’air en Vallée de l’Arve : définition d’un système de surveillance et impact d’une politique de rénovation du parc des appareils anciens

Abstract : Biomass burning is one of the major sources of atmospheric particles during wintertime in Alpine valleys, and more especially in the Arve valley where exceedances of the European regulated limit value are regularly observed. This situation led to the establishment of an important program of replacement of old wood stoves with new ones as part of an action of an Atmospheric Protection Plan (APP), the “Fonds Air Bois”. The research program DECOMBIO (“DÉconvolution de la contribution de la COMbustion de la BIOmasse aux PM10 dans la vallée de l’Arve”) has been set up in October 2013 to estimate the impact of this wood stoves renewal policy on air quality. This thesis works be incorporated within this program and have for main objective to validate methodologies used in routine to enable a fast deconvolution of the biomass burning source and to compare any observed changes with progress of wood stove changeout.To complete this work, three sites, representing the different situations of the Arve valley, were instrumented (Marnaz, Passy and Chamonix) to monitor the continuing evolution of atmospheric concentrations of Black Carbon (BC) and molecular markers enabling to distinguish between the biomass burning contribution and that of other types of combustion. A large dataset was acquired between November 2013 and October 2014 thanks to regular filter samples enabling a vast chemical characterization of PM10. The use of statistical analysis “Positive Matrix Factorization” (PMF) has led to an enhanced appreciation of particle emission sources within this valley with a focus on biomass burning emissions. The development of this methodology of identification and source apportionment based on the use of specific organic markers, specific constraints and data from carbonaceous matter deconvolution is an important progress in definition of factors from this model.The developed methodologies during this work, enabling an improvement of knowledges and source apportionment, are tools directly usable by French Accredited Associations for Air Quality Monitoring, especially for the quantitative assessment of actions introduced to improve air quality as part of Atmospheric Protection Plans, for example the one in the Arve valley.
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Florie Chevrier. Chauffage au bois et qualité de l’air en Vallée de l’Arve : définition d’un système de surveillance et impact d’une politique de rénovation du parc des appareils anciens. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAU020⟩. ⟨tel-01527559⟩

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