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Étude expérimentale de l'atomisation assistée de jets diphasiques gaz-liquide

Abstract : Assisted atomization of a liquid phase slow by a rapid gas co-current is a topic widely studied in the literature, and significant advances have occurred especially on the breakup mechanisms, the structure of the atomized jet as well as the characteristics of formed drops. However, few studies deal with a configuration where the slow phase consists of a two-phase liquid-gas jet. This situation occurs for example during the transitional ignition of cryogenic rocket engines during which the volumic gas fraction decreases continuously from 1 (purely gas) to 0 (purely liquid), so that almost all two-phases flow regimes, from bubbly flow to annular flow can be observed.The goal is to understand how the volumic gas fraction and/or two-phase flow regime of internal jet impact the atomization modes and the characteristics of the spray.To answer these questions, experiments were conducted with as fluid of substitution air and water under ambient conditions and under gravity. The three main control parameters are the superficial velocity of the liquid which was varied from 0.17 m/s to 2 m/s, the superficial gas velocity in the internal jet that has been set so that the gas flow rate fraction sweeps the range 0 to 0.99 and finally the external gas velocity that has evolved between 20 to 200 m/s. Three geometries of axisymmetric injectors were used to firstly access any desired phase flow regimes except mist flow, and also to vary the diameter of the central jet by a factor of about two. Two types of experimental campaigns were carried out: a campaign where the gas-liquid dynamic pressure ratio was set at 16 for varied gas flow rate fraction, as well as campaigns with fixed gas flow rate fraction and variable M.The structural characteristics of the spray, its breakup length and the angle of spray were measured by high speed imaging while the characteristics of the dispersed phase, that is to say, sizes, velocities and flows of the drops were measured by optical probe.Mapping of flow regimes in the injector and two-phase jet structures with and without assistance by external gas that we have established have shown that these structures were closely related to the flow regime of the central jet. Three main atomization modes were identified and its borders established. For small gas flow rate fraction, the atomization of liquid jets laden bubbles is subject to surface peeling and large-scale lateral beats like a single phase liquid jet. For very large gas flow rate fraction, the annular flow results in the atomization of an annular liquid sheet. For intermediate values, new structures type of umbrella form at the arrival of gas slugs characterized by high amplitude and orthogonal development with respect to the jet. Atomization of “churn" flow and annular flow gives rise to intermittent sprays because of passage of "liquid blocks" from the internal flow.The breakup length is reduced by the addition of internal gas and become very small for the high gas flow rate fractions. The behavior of the angle of the spray is different depending on the diameter of the atomized jet and the internal flow regime. It may therefore increase or decrease depending on configuration.Centred pdf on mean drop size are not much sensitive to the gas flow rate fraction. However mean drop sizes and volumic fluxes show marked evolution: they can according to the gas flow rate fraction and therefore the atomized jet structure decrease or increase.
Keywords : Atomization Jet Diphasic
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 31, 2017 - 3:09:16 PM
Last modification on : Friday, March 25, 2022 - 9:42:02 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01526698, version 1




Jean-Christophe Guillard. Étude expérimentale de l'atomisation assistée de jets diphasiques gaz-liquide. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAI037⟩. ⟨tel-01526698⟩



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