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Développement de méthodes permettant la détection et la quantification de microorganismes d'altération du vin : étude de facteurs de développement

Abstract : New practices used to elaborate wine lead to an increase of wine spoilage due to microorganisms. That is why, new technics have to be developed to quantify these microorganisms accurately, quickly and with low costs. The main wine spoilages are due to acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (A. aceti, A. pasteurianus, G. oxydans and Ga. liquefaciens) and Brettanomyces bruxellensis development. AAB transforms ethanol to acetic acid while B. bruxellensis transforms hydroxycinnamic acids to ethyl phenols (EP) (unpleasant odor molecules). In order to detect these wine spoilage microrganisms, flow cytometry coupled to fluorescent in situ hybridization has been assessed. No reproducible results have been developed for AAB in red wine while for B. bruxellensis, the existing protocol has been improved with a possible quantification after 18 h compared to 48-72 h in the previous protocol. The real-time PCR was also used to quantify these microorganisms. A protocol has been developed for the AAB quantification in red wine (103 cells/mL) with the use of a microbiological internal control to validate the DNA yield after extraction. For B. bruxellensis, three commercial kits were analyzed in an interlaboratory study. Quantifications were significantly different to the enumerations by Petri dish, with dead cell quantifications. Moreover, we demonstrated that the effectiveness of sulfite is dependent of the B. bruxellensis population. It also appears from these experiments that cells in viable but not culturable state do not produce EP.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 15, 2017 - 8:55:08 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 5:00:44 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01525691, version 1

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Cédric Longin. Développement de méthodes permettant la détection et la quantification de microorganismes d'altération du vin : étude de facteurs de développement. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS033⟩. ⟨tel-01525691⟩

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