Précarité sociale, traumatismes psychiques et fonctionnements limites, une logique de survie psychique comme dénominateur commun : recherche qualitative en psychologie auprès de sujets en situation de précarité sociale

Abstract : This qualitative research explores the psychological functioning of individuals living in precariousness. The methodology used is based on grounded theory and clinical analysis referring to the complementarist method. Results show that individuals in precariousness operate on the basis of psychic survival as coined by Bergeret (1984): experienced by all infants as a primary violence, it perseveres in a context of distress without adequate help in the child’s environment. This logic of survival is underpinned by the individuals’ resort to pairs of opposites alternating abruptly. These opposites respond to the same goal of survival throughout a narcissistic preservation and a struggle against desubjectivation, in an attempt to avoid the psychological collapse once experienced (Winnicott, 1969). The core mechanisms animating the model of our participants’ psychological functioning underlined in our results are the following: splitting of the object, fragility of the “Moi-peau” (Anzieu, 1985), the acting, resorting to repetition as well as persecutory aspects. This model is no stranger to contexts that share the element of paradoxical (Roussillon, 1991). Therefore, social precariousness triggers the emergence of this functioning. The participants seemed to renegotiate this new situation and thus to integrate it, by attempting to reposition themselves as actors of their reality. This model of psychic logic described resonates with borderline and narcissistic organizations. However, it is not suggested to systematically assign to it a pathological dimension because it is adapted to a context where psychological survival is paramount.
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Sophie Fierdepied. Précarité sociale, traumatismes psychiques et fonctionnements limites, une logique de survie psychique comme dénominateur commun : recherche qualitative en psychologie auprès de sujets en situation de précarité sociale. Psychologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCD023⟩. ⟨tel-01523276⟩

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