Étude et mise en oeuvre d'estimateurs pour l'altimétrie par réflectométrie GNSS

Abstract : The Global Navigation Satellite Systems Reflectometry (GNSS-R) is an Earth observation technique. It is based on a passive bi-static radar system using the L-band signal coming directly from a GNSS satellite and this same signal reflected by the Earth surface. The aim of the presented work is to develop signal processing methods for altimetry measurements using ground based GNSS-R. The altitude is derived from the difference of path between the direct and reflected signals. We propose three estimators for GNSS-R altimetry measurement using respectively the code observations, the carrier-to-noise ratio C/N₀ observations, and the phase observations obtained by a mono-frequency receiver. Firstly, we define a pseudo-range estimator using under-sampling code delay observations aided by phase measurements. We show that the proposed estimator allows avoiding accuracy limitations due to the receiver resolution. Secondly, a calibration method has been developed for the Interference Pattern Technique, for normalizing the C/N₀ of the combination of the direct and reflected signals. The Cramèr-Rao Lower Bound of this estimation technique is studied. We show that the proposed estimator allows reducing the observation duration while keeping the centimeter accuracy. Thirdly, a last method is proposed in order to evaluate the difference of path between the direct and reflected signals using phase measurement.The phase measurement is an angular data evolving linearly with the satellite elevation. In this context, we propose two estimators based on a circular-linear regression and the von Mises distribution. Experimentation on real data conclude this manuscript and show the feasibility of these methods. The centimeter accuracy is reached.
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Jean-Christophe Kucwaj. Étude et mise en oeuvre d'estimateurs pour l'altimétrie par réflectométrie GNSS. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DUNK0425⟩. ⟨tel-01522651⟩

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