Analyse des effets directionnels dans l'infrarouge thermique dans le cas des couverts végétaux continus : modélisation et application à la correction des données spatiales

Abstract : Remotely-sensed data in thermal infrared (TIR) are an essential source of information to estimate surface fluxes and to monitor the functioning of agro-ecosystems. However, surface temperature measurements are prone to directional effects ('hot spot' phenomenon)which may result in an error up to 10°C. They have to be taken into account in the framework of operational applications. The work proposed here aims at modelling the directional anisotropy of continuous vegetated canopies in order to develop operational methods for correcting land surface temperature measurements carried out by TIR satellites. This work is mainly motivated by the CNES projects aiming at developing a new TIR spatial mission combining both high spatial resolution and high revisit time capacities. Two steps were carried out. The first is based on the use of the deterministic SVAT model SCOPE (Soil Canopy Observation, Photochemistry and Energy fluxes), able to simulate directional radiances at top of canopy in both optical and TIR domains. In this thesis, it is validated against experimental measurements and its ability to successfully simulate TIR directional anisotropy demonstrated. Then it is used to study the sensitivity of anisotropy to canopy structure, water status of soil and vegetation, meteorological forcing and solar and observer angular configurations. The consequences of the combined features of satellites orbits, geographical position of the scanned sites and acquisition date on anisotropy are discussed. In the second part, we propose a simplified parametric model (called 'RL'). SCOPE is used as a data generator. The RL model is deemed suitable and able to correctly reproduce directional signatures both in terms of geometry (hot spot position) and amplitude of these effects. A comparison with the only one parametric model previously used in TIR remote sensing (Vinnikov's approach) confirms the good capacities of the RL model. The RL model is thus a potential candidate to the future satellite processing chains.
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Clément Duffour. Analyse des effets directionnels dans l'infrarouge thermique dans le cas des couverts végétaux continus : modélisation et application à la correction des données spatiales. Planétologie et astrophysique de la terre [astro-ph.EP]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30050⟩. ⟨tel-01514176⟩

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