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Protection de la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae par un système biopolymérique multicouche : effet sur son activité métabolique en réponse aux conditions de l'environnement

Abstract : In order to protect the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast during dehydration, two strategies were used to improve cell survival. Strengthening cell resistance (internal protection) was performed by improving the concentration of intracellular glutathione in yeast. Encapsulation was performed by layer-by-layer method using two biopolymers β-lactoglobulin and alginate for the external protection of the yeast. The adequate medium culture and favorable growing conditions for glutathione enhancement were determined. The composition of the culture medium is rich in nutrients and glutathione precursors consisting in 30 g/L glucose, 30 g/L yeast extract, 0.6 g/L KH2PO4 and 0.6 g/L cysteine. The success of encapsulation was confirmed by different analytical methods such as zetametry, electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The deposition of three layers of β-lactoglobulin/alginate/β-lactoglobulin did not affect membrane integrity and the growth of yeast. Furthermore, the membrane permeability was not affected by the presence of this biopolymer barrier. The effect of glutathione and encapsulation on the resistance of the yeast in dehydrating conditions was measured by the estimation of cell survival, biochemical modification and cellular metabolism. The results showed that the glutathione-enriched yeast present higher survival after dehydration. Moreover, the survival of the yeast was improved by the encapsulation. These observations were clearly obtained in dehydration conditions at 45 °C. Infrared analysis identified a common point in the relationship between biochemical property and cell survival. Higher survival was observed when the yeast was characterized by methyl group (CH3). The role of glutathione in yeast protection was highlighted during dehydration. It seemed that the action of oxidized glutathione was set up after the intervention of reduced glutathione. In addition, the internal protection by glutathione allowed the yeast to resist to chemical stress while the external protection by encapsulation enhances the resistance against physical or mechanical stress. These results can be useful for the research of new technology in fragile yeast production and protection.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, April 19, 2017 - 1:01:27 AM
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Thanh Dat Nguyen. Protection de la levure Saccharomyces cerevisiae par un système biopolymérique multicouche : effet sur son activité métabolique en réponse aux conditions de l'environnement. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS020⟩. ⟨tel-01510068⟩

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