La voix genrée, entre idéologies et pratiques – Une étude sociophonétique

Abstract : The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the relationship between voice and gender. Phonetic, experimental and ethnographic data have been used to study how the voice is perceived as gendered and how speakers use vocal practices to index gender identities. Two experiments with synthetized and resynthesized voices have shown that fundamental frequency and resonance frequencies play different roles in the perception of gender. The results of these experiments could be reproduced in a third experiment with voices of transgender speakers: under a certain fundamental frequency threshold, voices tend to be perceived as “male voices”; but above this threshold, resonance frequencies define if the voice is perceived as “female voice” or “male voice”. The study of the vocal practices of transgender speakers raised questions about gender passing, and about the indexical link between identities, stances and voice. It also raised the question of the legitimacy of researchers that are identified as cisgender males to do research on trans speaker voices. These different questions could be addressed through ethnographic data. Finally, an analysis of the phonetic literature showed that the research questions and hypotheses, the axioms, the analyses and interpretations of data one can find in phonetic studies can be a vehicle for a sexist and binary gender ideology.
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Aron Arnold. La voix genrée, entre idéologies et pratiques – Une étude sociophonétique. Linguistique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCA148⟩. ⟨tel-01508858⟩

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